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a shade of the voice and a distorted pronunciation of the sounds of speech caused by the peculiarities of the sound-forming stream of air as it passes through the nasal and oral cavities. There are open and closed forms of nasality.

Open nasality is observed in cases of defects of the hard palate and defects and paralysis of the soft palate when a significant part of the air passes into the nose during the pronunciation of the sounds of speech—the voice acquires a severe nasal shade, and speech becomes inarticulate. Closed nasality arises as a consequence of the difficult passage of air through the nose as a result of chronic cold, adenoids, or polypi in the nose; this especially disrupts the pronunciation of the nasal sounds [m] and [n]—they sound like [b] and [d], and the voice becomes muted. Sometimes nasality is caused not by an anatomical problem but by a habit of incorrectly pronouncing words, in particular as a result of deafness and consequent inability to aurally check the speech. Nasality can be eliminated by special logopedic exercises. If anatomical problems are present, preparatory treatment, sometimes surgery, is conducted.


References in periodicals archive ?
This is said to be pronounced as a "closed" a with French-like nasalization, or approximatley as oa, hence: IPA[wa].
For example, in Bugau [mandok] 'roast (chicken)' but [manok] 'chicken'; whereas in Mualang [manok] 'roast (a chicken)', without the phonetic realization of the stop/d/, contrasts with [mano[eta]k] 'chicken' marked by the presence of nasalization and an excrescent nasal consonant before final k.
Blust, Robert 1997 Nasals and Nasalization in Borneo.
We might hypothesize, then, that Dharmaraksa, faced with a kharosthi manuscript in which nasalization was at best irregularly marked, made mistakes both of omission and addition in his recitation of the text.
Taken by themselves, then, confusions related to nasalization are inconclusive with regard to the underlying language or script of Dharmaraksa's source text.
The Nama clicks are the only segments represented in Maddieson's study in which nasalization occurs.
LAB = labialization PAL = palatalization VEL = velarization PHA = pharyngealization ASP = aspiration PRN = prenasalization NAS = nasalization PRA = preaspiration BRV = breathy voicing BRR = breathy release LAR = laryngealization EJE = ejectivity GLO = glottalization
In this last category would belong the NASALIZATION rule, which converts sequences of vowel plus [m] or [n] to [v] in final position.
19) Nasalization and reduplication in Madurese /neat/ [right arrow] [jat-nejat] `intentions' /moa/ [right arrow] [wa-mowa] `faces' /maen-an/ [right arrow] [en-ma([?
For example, common across regional and social dialects are the velarization and elision of syllable-final /n/ (though the nasalization remains on the preceding vowel)(5) and the weakening and elision of syllable-final /s/.
represents reduced unstressed vowels, [[Eta]] appears where a velar stop has been suppressed in an underlying sequence consisting of a nasal followed by velar stop, length (which is not phonemic) is marked, and nasalization of vowels is marked where an underlyingly present nasal consonant has been suppressed, Unadapted loans from Guyanese are transcribed as they occurred in speech (e.
This markedness constraint is well motivated acoustically, since it is difficult: to hear nasalization when the glottis is closed.