nationality


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nationality,

in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language. While no one of these factors is essential, some must be present for cohesion to be strong enough to justify the term nationality. Used in this sense, nationality does not necessarily denote membership within a specific political state. There are many examples of nations divided between several states and of states composed of several nations and parts of nations. Thus not all Albanians live in Albania, and, on the other hand, Switzerland has citizens whose native languages are German, French, Italian, and Romansh. In political theory the belief that a state should be identical with a nation is called the "principle of nationalities," or, more commonly, "self-determination." This view is a typical expression of nationalismnationalism,
political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state.
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; it was advanced partly as a means of solving the problem of the national minorityminority,
in international law, population group with a characteristic culture and sense of identity occupying a subordinate political status. Religious minorities were known from ancient times, but ethnic minorities did not become an issue in European politics until the rise of
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 after World War I. Nationality in its specific legal sense is a very different concept; it is attachment to a state by a tie of allegiance. Nationals in this sense are fundamentally distinguished from aliens (see alienalien,
in law, any person residing in one political community while owing allegiance to another. A procedure known as naturalization permits aliens to become citizens.

Each nation establishes conditions upon which aliens will be admitted, and makes laws concerning them.
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) and in most, but not all, countries are identical with citizenscitizen,
member of a state, native or naturalized, who owes allegiance to the government of the state and is entitled to certain rights. Citizens may be said to enjoy the most privileged form of nationality; they are at the furthest extreme from nonnational residents of a state
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. Nationality gives the state the right to impose certain duties, especially military service. Some states will punish their nationals for crimes wherever committed; the United States, however, punishes only those crimes, except treason, that are committed within American territorial jurisdiction. States may tax the income and other assets of their nationals regardless of whether they reside abroad. The national owes duties to his government but is also entitled to diplomatic protection when in a foreign country. Such protection includes the assistance of consular officials when the national is accused of crime and the offering of refuge in emergencies. In many instances certain persons, particularly those who have undergone naturalizationnaturalization,
official act by which a person is made a national of a country other than his or her native one. In some countries naturalized persons do not necessarily become citizens but may merely acquire a new nationality.
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, will be regarded as nationals by two states at once. Such problems of dual nationality have been a frequent cause of international diplomatic disputes.

Bibliography

See P. Weis, Nationality and Statelessness in International Law (1956); B. Akzin, States and Nations (1966); C. Joseph, Nationality and Diplomatic Protection (1969).

Nationality

 

(narodnost’), a historically formed linguistic, territorial, economic, and cultural community of people that precedes the formation of a nation.

A nationality emerges as tribal alliances are consolidated, and is expressed in the gradual blending of tribes and the substitution of territorial bonds for ties of kinship. The earliest nationalities were formed during the slaveholding period; among these were the ancient Egyptians and Hellenes. In Europe the formation of nationalities was basically completed in the feudal period; examples include the old (Kievan) Russians, Poles, and French. In other parts of the world, this process continued into still later historical periods.

Nationalities were ordinarily formed from several tribes of close common origin and language, as the Poles developed from such Slavic tribes as the Polanians, Vistulans, and Mazovians. Tribes with different languages that became intermingled as the result of conquest could also give rise to a single nationality, as the French developed from Gallic tribes, Roman colonists, and German tribes that included the Franks, Visigoths, and Burgundians. As ties among the ethnically separate elements of an emerging nationality grow stronger, the language of one of them, often the most numerous or best developed one, becomes the common language of the nationality. The remaining tribal languages are reduced to dialects and sometimes disappear entirely. A territorial, cultural, and economic community is formed under a common name. The establishment of a state may aid the consolidation of a nationality, but in the process of historical development, nationality need not coincide with the state either territorially or linguistically.

As capitalist relations develop and as economic and cultural ties are strengthened, the nationality is transformed into a nation. Nationalities that were divided by state boundaries may provide the basis of several national formations, as has been the case with the Portuguese and Galicians and with the Germans and Luxembourgers. The old Russian nationality became the common root of the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian nationalities, each of which subsequently became a nation. No less frequently, several nationalities have come to constitute a single nation. In the USSR, nationalities such as the Turkmen and Kirghiz have become nations while bypassing the capitalist stage of development. Many nationalities, particularly smaller ones, fall behind in their development for a number of reasons and do not emerge as nations. With time, they form close bonds with more developed nationalities and nations whose culture and language they assimilate, and gradually they merge with them.

The collapse of the colonial system of imperialism and the achievement of independence by many countries of Asia and Africa have accelerated the processes of ethnic consolidation and the growth of national self-awareness. New nationalities and nations are being formed from tribal-territorial ethnic groups in these countries.

REFERENCES

Engels, F. Proiskhozhdeniesem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosudarstva. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch.. 2nd ed., vol. 21.
Lenin, V. I. “Chto takoe ’druz’ia naroda’ i kak oni voiuiut protiv sotsialdemokratov?” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 1.
Alekseev, V. Rod, plemia, narodnost’. natsiia. Moscow, 1962.
Chislennost’ i rasselenie narodov mira. Edited by S. I. Bruk. Moscow,
1962.
Kozlov, V. I. Dinamika chislennosti narodov. Moscow, 1969.

S. I. BRUK

References in classic literature ?
Then it occurred to him: if the answer to the question were contained in his name, his nationality would also be given in the answer.
As they waited in the low-ceiled, pleasant living room of the farmhouse until the meal should be ready, Carthoris drew his host into conversation that he might learn his nationality, and thus the nation under whose dominion lay the waterway where circumstance had placed him.
I was living in a time of high political tumult, and I certainly cared very much for the question of slavery which was then filling the minds of men; I felt deeply the shame and wrong of our Fugitive Slave Law; I was stirred by the news from Kansas, where the great struggle between the two great principles in our nationality was beginning in bloodshed; but I cannot pretend that any of these things were more than ripples on the surface of my intense and profound interest in literature.
Falling back upon his European nationality, Werper assured Abdul Mourak that he was a Frenchman, hunting in Africa, and that he had been attacked by strangers, his safari killed or scattered, and himself escaping only by a miracle.
Never before had I been so proud of my nationality as I was that moment.
The Jew - of Da Souza's nationality it was impossible to have any doubt - was coarse and large of his type, he wore soiled linen clothes and was smoking a black cigar.
His hat, low in the crown and of soft gray felt, would alone have betrayed his nationality.
This argument capped all the others, and, in order so much the more effectually to destroy the germ of conspiracy, sentence of death was unanimously pronounced against Cornelius van Baerle, as being arraigned, and convicted, for having, under the innocent appearance of a tulip-fancier, participated in the detestable intrigues and abominable plots of the brothers De Witt against Dutch nationality and in their secret relations with their French enemy.
In the light of what I knew of ancient history, it was not difficult for me to guess the nationality of those she described simply as "the men from over there.
In that way the professor's French nationality is accounted for.
They proved that a seal pup could swim or not swim at birth by stating the proposition very bellicosely and then following it up with an attack on the opposing man's judgment, common sense, nationality, or past history.
He had a little English, and liked to air it upon me, much to my disgust; if I could not hope to conceal my nationality as yet, I at least did not want to have it advertised; and the swine had English friends.