Native Element

native element

[′nād·iv ′el·ə·mənt]
(geology)
Any of 20 elements, such as copper, gold, and silver, which occur naturally uncombined in a nongaseous state; there are three groups—metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.

Native Element

 

any of the chemical elements encountered in nature in the form of more or less stable minerals. Native elements are classified as nonmetals (polymorphic modifications of carbon—diamond and graphite—native S, Se, Te), semimetals (native As, Sb), and metals (native Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ir, Fe, Ta, Pb, Zn, Sn, Hg, Bi). Since the solid solutions of native metals are mineralogically and genetically closely related to the metals, they are usually grouped with native elements, as are, sometimes, intermetallic compounds. For example, minerals of the platinum group include, in addition to rare platinum itself, ferroplatinum and polyxene. Gases that exist in an uncombined state in nature include nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, argon, helium, krypton, xenon, and radon.

Most native elements are rarely encountered, and only under unusual conditions do they form large aggregations (deposits). Of the metals, native gold and elements of the platinum group have great industrial importance. Native copper, which is a component of ores in several types of deposits, is less important to industry, and native silver has even less significance. Of the nonmetals, diamond, graphite, and sulfur have great importance. Native iron and nickeliferous iron occur in lunar rock and meteorites but are rarely found in the earth’s crust.

Polymorphic modifications are typical of certain minerals making up the native elements. Native elements, like all minerals, are characterized by the presence of admixtures and by a variety of forms, both of which reflect the conditions under which the native elements were formed. The origin of native elements derives from magmatic, hydrothermal, metamorphic, and supergene processes. Many native elements are found in placers.

REFERENCE

Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960.

A. S. MARFUNIN

References in classic literature ?
But, with a full grown leviathan this is impossible; for the sperm whale's head embraces nearly one third of his entire bulk, and completely to suspend such a burden as that, even by the immense tackles of a whaler, this were as vain a thing as to attempt weighing a Dutch barn in jewellers' scales The Pequod's whale being decapitated and the body stripped, the head was hoisted against the ship's side --about half way out of the sea, so that it might yet in great part be buoyed up by its native element.
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Most of them walked into the water as though into a native element.
I like the plan of sending 'em with the peel on; there's a charm in drawing a poato from its native element (if I may so express it) to which the rich and powerful are strangers.
Cobb felt like a fish removed from his native element and left panting on the sand; there was no evading the awful responsibility of a reply, for Rebecca's eyes were searchlights, that pierced the fiction of his brain and perceived the bald spot on the back of his head.
He should have been at peace with himself and all the world, for was he not in his native element surrounded by game in plenty and rapidly filling his belly with the flesh he loved best?
The principle of reliance and unquestioning faith, which is its foundation, is more a native element in this race than any other; and it has often been found among them, that a stray seed of truth, borne on some breeze of accident into hearts the most ignorant, has sprung up into fruit, whose abundance has shamed that of higher and more skilful culture.
The last thing Miss Jenny saw, as she looked back before closing the room door, was Mr Fledgeby in the act of plunging and gambolling all over his bed, like a porpoise or dolphin in its native element.
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Newman was fond, under all circumstances, of the society of women, and now that he was out of his native element and deprived of his habitual interests, he turned to it for compensation.
MPCVD doesn't involve synthesis at any stage of the diamond growth process, and leads to the formation of diamond in its native element form, just like earth-derived diamonds.