t]) is defined as the natural logarithm
of the ratio of one plus the total number of patents filed in application year i+1 to one plus R&D expenses (in $000's) in the previous year t.
This prediction gives one data point in the simulated distribution of (the natural logarithm
of) wages that would have been earned by the ith European hockey player ([X.
The coefficient on natural logarithm
of loans is below 1 for the year 2007 to 2010, which means that for every rupee increase in loans, total expenses increase by less than one, but in 2011, 2012, and 2013 the coefficient on natural logarithm
of loans is more than one, which implies that for every one rupee increase in loans, total expenses increase by more than a rupee.
Five control variables are included in Equation (2), which includes the variables used to measure financial distress in Equation (1): the natural logarithm
of the capital-to-assets ratio, the ratio of net income to lagged assets, and an indicator for negative net income.
We define the rate of return now to be the change in the natural logarithm
of the stock price in period t.
In addition, the natural logarithm
of the Medicaid price per day, which was suggested by Nyman (1994) and Gulley and Santere (2007) as a proxy for marginal cost, is included in the model.
i], is the natural logarithm
of the total dollar amount resulting from the proceeds of the equity offering measured as the total shares offered times the offer price.
Linear regression equations between shell length and natural logarithm
of age at 3 stocking densities over 8 mo of grow-out are shown in Table 2.
j] is the natural logarithm
of the fund's age since inception until December 2004; [INITIAL SERVICE CHARGE.
t] is the post-futures period daily volatility estimate; LN(Firm) is the natural logarithm
of equity value of the firm; LNVOL is the natural logarithm
of spot trading volume, coefficients for days of the week, lagged volatility estimates and a binary variable (FUTDUMY) that is equal to one for the SSFs-listed stocks and 0 for the non-SSFs stocks.
0] is the left ventricular pressure at any time before the time of left ventricular pressure of P, e is the base of natural logarithm
, t is the time interval between the pressure of [P.
APPENDIX TABLE A1 Determinants of Net Interest Margins: Cross-Country Regressions, 2002 (Excluding Brazil, Malawi, and Venezuela) (1) (2) Natural logarithm