need


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need

[nēd]
(psychology)
An acquired or physiological lack or deficit within the individual.

need(s)

  1. the basic requirements necessary to sustain human life. MASLOW (1954) suggested a hierarchy of needs from the basic physiological needs for food, safety and shelter, to psychological needs of belonging, approval, love, and finally the need for SELF-ACTUALIZATION. Only the physiological needs are essential for sustaining life and, according to Maslow, must be fulfilled before higher needs can be met. Some sociologists have argued that the existence of human needs indicates that universal FUNCTIONAL PREREQUISITES for the survival of any society can be identified.
  2. any socially acquired individual ‘drive’ (personality need), e.g. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION.
  3. a distinction may also be drawn between basic needs and felt needs. In ECONOMICS, the term wants is used to refer both to psychological and social ‘felt needs’ and also to the goods which stimulate these.
While many sociologists have registered their dissatisfaction with NEEDS 1 , arguing that human needs are not universal but socially formed, conceptions of human needs have not been confined to psychologists or functionalist sociologists. Frankfurt School neo-Marxist sociologists (e.g. MARCUSE) refer to the ‘false needs’ created by capitalist societies, thus implying human ‘needs’. Conceptions of ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’ POVERTY also depend on conceptions of physiological and social needs. see also BASIC HUMAN NEEDS.
References in classic literature ?
A State, I said, arises, as I conceive, out of the needs of mankind; no one is self-sufficing, but all of us have many wants.
Neither will the builder make his tools--and he too needs many; and in like manner the weaver and shoemaker.
Maud gave an incredulous sniff, and wondered why "big girls need to be so dreadful mysterious about their old secrets.
I don't care for the dress, but I 'd like to slip a little money into her pocket, for I know she needs it and is too good to ask dear Mr.
Yes, shy men, like ugly women, have a bad time of it in this world, to go through which with any comfort needs the hide of a rhinoceros.
He won't need to destroy ME, for if I don't get something to eat pretty soon I shall starve to death, and so save him the trouble.
You don't need milk, Eureka," remarked Dorothy; "you are big enough now to eat any kind of food.
I shall order you destroyed in a few minutes, so you will have no need to ruin our pretty melon vines and berry bushes.
It will be several days before she needs to be picked, or at least that is my judgment.
I think nothing,' said Kim, 'but that I am grieved to go, for I am very weary; and that we need food.
These cattle' - she did not condescend to look at them - 'are thine for so long as thou shalt need.
I do not need anything,' said Kim, angered where he should have been grateful.