need

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need

[nēd]
(psychology)
An acquired or physiological lack or deficit within the individual.

need(s)

  1. the basic requirements necessary to sustain human life. MASLOW (1954) suggested a hierarchy of needs from the basic physiological needs for food, safety and shelter, to psychological needs of belonging, approval, love, and finally the need for SELF-ACTUALIZATION. Only the physiological needs are essential for sustaining life and, according to Maslow, must be fulfilled before higher needs can be met. Some sociologists have argued that the existence of human needs indicates that universal FUNCTIONAL PREREQUISITES for the survival of any society can be identified.
  2. any socially acquired individual ‘drive’ (personality need), e.g. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION.
  3. a distinction may also be drawn between basic needs and felt needs. In ECONOMICS, the term wants is used to refer both to psychological and social ‘felt needs’ and also to the goods which stimulate these.
While many sociologists have registered their dissatisfaction with NEEDS 1 , arguing that human needs are not universal but socially formed, conceptions of human needs have not been confined to psychologists or functionalist sociologists. Frankfurt School neo-Marxist sociologists (e.g. MARCUSE) refer to the ‘false needs’ created by capitalist societies, thus implying human ‘needs’. Conceptions of ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’ POVERTY also depend on conceptions of physiological and social needs. see also BASIC HUMAN NEEDS.
References in classic literature ?
Tulliver had done something because other people had said he was not able to do it, or had pitied him for his supposed inability, or in any other way piqued his pride; still, she thought to-day, if she told him when he came in to tea that sister Pullet was gone to try and make everything up with sister Glegg, so that he needn't think about paying in the money, it would give a cheerful effect to the meal.
Oh, shoemaker's boy, you needn't be in such a hurry
But he was very stiff and proud; He said "You needn't shout so loud
that Snow girl's' hopes by the withering telegram, "You needn't be so polite all of a sudden, for you won't get any.
You needn't pretend you discovered her," interrupted Miss Maxwell warmly, "for I did that myself.
You needn't deceive me, sir," said Adam, looking hard at Mr.
One needn't be a Doctor," I said, "to take an interest in medical books.
In the first place, you needn't sneer at adventure when you are living it yourself; and you were certainly living it when I found you first, down with fever on a lonely plantation with a couple of hundred wild cannibals thirsting for your life.
And now, little woman, you needn't come to the office any more.
Well, you needn't preach; you didn't any of you do any more, and you might have, for Mac likes you better than he does me.
And you needn't stop to discourse with sympathetic listeners on your way, either.
You needn't think, Sara Stanley, that nobody but you can do anything.