Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.


see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
..... Click the link for more information.



the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys in vertebrate animals and man. A distinction is made between aglomerular and glomerular nephrons. Aglomerular nephrons are found in certain fishes and contain cells of a single type; glomerular nephrons, found in all other vertebrates and in man, contain the Malpighian bodies and Bowman’s capsules. The renal tubules extend from Bowman’s capsules.

The cells of glomerular nephrons are highly specialized to perform the functions required in the formation of urine—filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In embryos the nephron also includes the nephrostomes, which are the ciliated infundibuli of the tubules. The nephrostomes open into the body cavity.


The functional unit of a kidney, consisting of the glomerulus with its capsule and attached uriniferous tubule.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sometimes a combination of two diuretics is given as it can be significantly more effective than either compound alone, the reason being that one nephron segment can compensate for altered sodium reabsorption at another nephron segment; therefore, blocking multiple nephron sites significantly enhances efficacy.
neglecta caused decline in serum creatinine and no damage to the glomeruli as the most important parts of nephrons and protected the kidneys against serious damages.
MIOX might thus fit several requirements of novel biomarker development, including an early increase, and specificity to renal tissue and nephron segments.
Proteasome analysis of urinary exosomes has identified proteins from all segments of the nephron, including glomerular podocytes (podocin and podocalyxin), proximal tubules (megalin, cubilin, aquaporin-1, and type IV carbonic anhydrase), thick ascending limb of Henle (type 2 Na-K-2Cl cotransporter), distal convoluted tubule (thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter), and the collecting duct (aquaporin 2) (12).
The primary difference between MCNS and FSGS is that MCNS does not leave a scar and the nephron can revert to a healthy form while FSGS by definition causes scar tissue.
Samples of proximal tubule fluid were obtained from seven different nephrons for determination of flow rate and polyfructosan concentration to calculate single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR).
The source of most of the urinary potassium is potassium secretion in the distal nephron, particularly by the principal cells in the cortical collecting tubule.
However, if the number of functional nephrons is too low, this hyperfiltration and hypertrophy continue leading to a cycle of sclerosis and further nephron loss.
This region of the epididymal ducts is equivalent to the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron (Fig.
LBW humans have reduced nephron numbers and glomerular hypertrophy and are prone to microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and decreased glomerular filtration (Celsi et at.
Previous research has linked high blood pressure with a low nephron number, critical because the nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney.