neuritis

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neuritis

(no͝orī`tĭs, nyo͝o–), inflammation of a peripheral nerve, often accompanied by degenerative changes in nervous tissue. The cause can be mechanical (injury, pressure), vascular (occlusion of a vessel or hemorrhage into nerve tissue), infectious (invasion by microorganisms), toxic (metallic or chemical poisoning, alcoholism), or metabolic (vitamin deficiencies, pernicious anemia). Symptoms of neuritis that arise from involvement of sensory nerves are tingling, burning, pin-and-needle sensations, or even loss of sensation. If motor nerves are involved, symptoms may range from a slight loss of muscle tone to paralysis. Since neuritis is regarded as a condition that results from a number of disorders, rather than a disease in itself, treatment is directed first at the underlying cause. See neuralgianeuralgia
, acute paroxysmal pain along a peripheral sensory nerve. Unlike neuritis, there is no inflammation or degeneration of nerve tissue. Neuralgia occurs commonly in the area of the facial, or trigeminal, nerve and brings attacks of excruciating pain at varying intervals.
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Neuritis

 

an inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerves. The symptoms of neuritis include pain, paralysis, pareses, and the decrease or loss of nerve sensitivity. Neuritides can result from a wide variety of causes. For example, otitis in the middle ear, and such infectious agents as the virus of herpes zoster can be involved in the pathogenesis of neuritis of the facial nerve. Catarrhal factors and traumas can also play a part in the development of this type of neuritis.

Polyneuritis is a special form of neuritis in which many nerves are involved in the disease process. Some polyneuritides are caused by a neurotropic virus. The roots of the spinal nerve are usually affected (as in polyradiculoneuritis), and often the spinal column and even the brain are affected. The most common causes of polyneuritides are chronic exogenous intoxications, such as those caused by alcohol, botulism toxin, and lead, or endogenous, intoxications, for instance, those resulting from diabetes and uremia.

Patients with neuritis experience pain in the extremities, muscular weakness, disturbances of sensitivity, atrophies and pareses of muscles, changes in skin coloring, sweating, and chilliness. These changes appear predominantly in the regions of the hands and feet. Neuritis is treated by first curing the causative disease and then using antibiotics, analgesics, sedatives, and B vitamins. Physiotherapy is also indicated.

V. A. KARLOV

neuritis

[nu̇′rīd·əs]
(medicine)
Degenerative or inflammatory nerve lesions associated with pain, hypersensitivity, anesthesia or paresthesia, paralysis, muscular atrophy, and loss of reflexes in the innervated part of the body.

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often accompanied by pain and loss of function in the affected part
References in periodicals archive ?
A[beta] and tau immunostaining demonstrated only sparse neuritic plaques, a Braak NFT stage of II, and a Thal phase of 3, despite the 8-year clinical history of AD superimposed on the patient's known LBD.
Association of neuritis along with skin lesions was seen in 10 (36%) cases, while only 1 (3%) patient presented with neuritis alone (pure neuritic Hansen's disease).
The same group also found that cynomolgus monkeys exposed to lead as infants had more neuritic plaques in their brains and exhibited higher levels of APP and A[beta] than did monkeys not exposed to lead (Wu a al.
First, the presence in cerebral tissue of a spherical formation known as neuritic plaque, consisting mainly of degenerating brain cells.
This suggests that years after a single TBI, amyloid-beta plaques may return and become neuritic.
11) A report in 2010 indicated that the heavy use of NSAIDs by Alzheimer's patients resulted in an increase rather than a decrease in the neuritic plaques associated with the disease.
8,9) Senile or neuritic plaques, which are composed of tortuous neuritic processes surrounding a central amyloid core, are best visualized using silver stains or immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta (A[beta]) protein.
Studies have also revealed significant reduction in synaptic and neuritic markers accompanied by widespread vacuolization of apical dendrites in apo E knockout mice (111).
Neuritic plaques are mainly composed of aggregates of beta-amyloid.
They extended side branches or collaterals which were of two kinds; one, which were short, thick and were mostly found near neurite origins at surfaces of ganglia while the others, were long and thin and were found at distal neuritic ends.
In PC-12 cells, DOPAL at micromolar concentrations (about 500 times the peak concentrations in the present study) causes degeneration of neuritic processes, evokes nonexocytotic dopamine release, and reduces the percent of viable cells (8, 9,12).