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nitric acid esterester,
any one of a group of organic compounds with general formula RCO2R′ (where R and R′ are alkyl groups or aryl groups) that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
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 of cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylinpyroxylin
, partially nitrated cellulose (see nitrocellulose). It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by dissolving pyroxylin in a mixture of volatile solvents and adding a plasticizer and a pigment or dye.
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 is formed.


(organic chemistry)

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
References in periodicals archive ?
Safety surveillance of artillery and small-arms propellants for safe stability levels will be required for as long as we continue to use nitrocellulose as a primary energetic material.
One of the intriguing qualities of nitrocellulose is that it is the basic material in many harmless, domestic products including celluloid plastic, early photographic film, rayon, fingernail polish and lacquer.
A second series of experiments focused on nitrocellulose membranes, because these membranes become transparent after mixing with immersion oil (10).
Besides, the report provides nitrocellulose prices in regional markets.
Ink manufacturers will likely see an increase in issues related to nitrocellulose, titanium dioxide, and additives, as well as persistence of the issues in rosin resin and some pigments.
One witness said: "It seems to have started from where the nitrocellulose was stored.
The mAbs (aEPX and aHNL) coupled to PEG were both deposited onto the nitrocellulose membrane (Millipore) using a Biodot dispensing apparatus (Biodot XYZ 3000 1419) to form the reaction zone (RZ).
Tego Airex 940 prevents the development of micro and macro foam in clear nitrocellulose and 2-pack polyurethane varnishes and in pigmented wood coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins.
The antigen was bound to solid supports (microtitter plates, tubes, beads or nitrocellulose papers or nylon) and reacted with the test serum.
Proteins were electro-transferred to nitrocellulose and immunoblotted with the HRP-conjugated PY20 antiphosphotyrosine antibody, and specific bands were detected with chemiluminescence (SuperSignal Substrate; Pierce Biotechnology Inc, Rockford, IL, USA).
Without ruining the carbohydrate arrays ability to interact with other substances, Wang's group found they could affix thousands of complex sugars to glass slides coated with the carbohydrate nitrocellulose.
Electrophoresis transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications.