observational equivalence


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observational equivalence

Two terms M and N are observationally equivalent iff for all contexts C[] where C[M] is a valid term, C[N] is also a valid term with the same value.
References in periodicals archive ?
thus is to get behind observational equivalence in order to identify and
A regulator faced with the observational equivalence of
formalizes the concepts of observational equivalence and the distinction
Turning to observational equivalence, because positive term utility
m + b)/(am + b) must hold for any m in the support if observational equivalence holds.
This is essentially a problem of observational equivalence.
A third approach to dealing with observational equivalence is to employ a counterfactual.
Once again we have an observational equivalence problem.
The next section describes the observational equivalence problem confronting researchers interested in distinguishing between the Real Bills and Quantity Theory approach to inflation in the face of rapid deficit-financing money growth and the institutional setting which resolves the observational equivalence dilemma.
THE OBSERVATIONAL EQUIVALENCE OF THE REAL BILLS DOCTRINE AND THE QUANTITY
Even if it can be shown that an unambiguously out-of-control deficit causes inflation, there is an observational equivalence between the Quantity Theory and Real Bills hypotheses.
Clearly the case of the Republic of China seems to fit the requirements of a situation capable of resolving the observational equivalence dilemma.

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