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furniture,properly such movables as chairs, tables, and beds; it is extended to include draperies, rugs, mirrors, lamps, and other furnishings. In its gradual evolution from periods of earliest civilization, the history of furniture parallels the progress of culture. Furniture has been made in a great variety of materials and decorated by many methods, the most usual being inlayinginlaying,
process of ornamenting a surface by setting into it material of different color or substance, usually in such a manner as to preserve a continuous plane. Inlay is employed in connection with a great variety of objects, both of major architectural character and of minor
..... Click the link for more information. , painting or gilding, wood carvingwood carving,
as an art form, includes any kind of sculpture in wood, from the decorative bas-relief on small objects to life-size figures in the round, furniture, and architectural decorations.
The woods used vary greatly in hardness and grain.
..... Click the link for more information. , veneering, and marquetrymarquetry
, branch of cabinetwork in which a decorative surface of wood or other substance is glued to an object on a single plane. Unlike inlaying, in which the secondary material is sunk into portions of a solid ground cut out to receive it, the technique of marquetry applies
..... Click the link for more information. . Western furniture has drawn motifs of ornament from four main sources: Egyptian, Asian (Persian and Chinese), Greek, and Gothic.
Probably the first pieces to be in demand were the chest, the stool (prototype of the chair), the table, and the bed. From remote times Oriental furniture has exhibited carving and inlay on ebony and teak. Egyptian pieces 6,000 years old display an advanced form of woodworking, structure, and decoration and are characterized by inlays of gold and ivory and by carved supports representing animal forms. The Greeks favored the low couch, the tripod, and a chair with graceful, curved outlines. The Romans adopted Greek and Etruscan forms and during the imperial period developed many ornately decorated variations.
The heavily carved Gothic furniture reflected styles in architecture. Under Italian influence, the Renaissance brought richly decorated pieces designed specifically for domestic interiors. Peasant pieces were generally solid, painted or rudely carved, and slow to change in style. Provincial pieces followed in simplified form and in native woods; the period styles developed in the centers of culture. France became a leading influence with the Louis period stylesLouis period styles,
1610–1793, succession of modes of interior decoration and architecture that established France as a leading influence in the decorative arts. Louis XIV
..... Click the link for more information. , Directoire styleDirectoire style
, in French interior decoration and costume, the manner prevailing about the time of the Directory (1795–99), from which the name is derived. A style transitional between Louis XVI and Empire, it is characterized by a departure from the sumptuousness of
..... Click the link for more information. , and Empire styleEmpire style,
manner of French interior decoration and costume which evolved from the Directoire style. Designated Empire because of its identification with the reign of Napoleon I, it was largely inspired by his architects Percier and Fontaine.
..... Click the link for more information. .
English period styles include Elizabethan, in oak, with huge, bulbous supports; Jacobean, lighter and more comfortable, with spiral supports; William and Mary, introducing curved outlines, the trumpet leg, and the inverted-cup foot; Queen Anne, in walnut, characterized by cyma curves (double curves formed by joining a convex and a concave line), the rounded cabriole leg, and the broken pediment; Georgian, with its fine cabinetwork in a number of styles set by such designers as ChippendaleChippendale, Thomas
, 1718–79, celebrated English cabinetmaker. His designs were so widely followed that a whole general category of 18th-century English furniture is commonly grouped under his name.
..... Click the link for more information. , HepplewhiteHepplewhite, George
, d. 1786, English cabinetmaker and furniture designer. His style is characterized by light, curvilinear forms, painted or inlaid decoration, and distinctive details such as slender tapering legs (plain, fluted, or reeded) and the spade foot.
..... Click the link for more information. , Robert AdamAdam, Robert
, 1728–92, and James Adam,
1730–94, Scottish architects, brothers. They designed important public and private buildings in England and Scotland and numerous interiors, pieces of furniture, and decorative objects.
..... Click the link for more information. and his brother James, and SheratonSheraton, Thomas,
1751–1806, English designer of furniture and author. He may have been apprenticed to a cabinetmaker, and as an earnest Baptist he wrote religious books and preached. Records show that he was in London from c.
..... Click the link for more information. .
Early American furniture adapted current English styles in utilitarian form and in native woods—pine, maple, cherry. Later PhyfePhyfe, Duncan
, c.1768–1854, American cabinetmaker, b. Scotland. He emigrated to America c.1783, settling at Albany, N.Y., where he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker.
..... Click the link for more information. , SaverySavery, William
, 1721–87, American cabinetmaker. He is believed to have lived in Philadelphia from c.1740. Savery is noted for his artistic and original interpretation of 18th-century English furniture designs, especially the Queen Anne style, and for his fine workmanship.
..... Click the link for more information. , John GoddardGoddard, John
, 1724–85, American furniture maker, b. Dartmouth, Mass. He worked in Newport, R.I., and is recognized as having been one of the finest cabinetmakers in early America. Examples of his work are rare.
..... Click the link for more information. , and other expert cabinetmakers added walnut and mahogany. The late 19th cent. brought mass production of machine-made furniture and saw an expression of flamboyant taste in golden oak of rococo design; this was followed by a reaction in the United States to the Mission style of rectilinear construction in weathered oak.
Around the turn of the 20th cent., the organic forms of the art nouveau style achieved popularity. In the 1910s and 20s many attempts were made to develop a new and at the same time functional design. The efforts of the Dutch group de Stijl are notable, especially those of Gerrit RietveldRietveld, Gerrit Thomas
, 1888–1965, Dutch architect and furniture designer. At first a cabinetmaker, Rietveld created (c.1917) a chair that was an important contribution to modern furniture design.
..... Click the link for more information. . Modern materials were effectively employed by Miës van der Rohe in his famous Barcelona chair made of unadorned steel and leather, and contributions were also made by Saarinen and Bertoia. Other popular materials are welded metal and plastic. The use of fine woods in starkly simple design is the keynote of the elegant work that has been produced in the Scandinavian countries and won worldwide popularity since World War II.
See J. Aronson, The Encyclopedia of Furniture (3d ed. 1965); J. Gloag, A Social History of Furniture Design (1966); O. Wanscher, The Art of Furniture: 5000 Years of Furniture and Interiors (1967); K. McClinton, An Outline of Period Furniture (1972); M. Stimpson, Modern Furniture Classics (1987).
one of the principal types of furnishing for rooms, gardens, parks, and streets.
Furniture, which includes chairs, tables, cupboards, beds, sofas, and benches, is divided into domestic furniture (used in dwellings) and civic furniture (for schools, nurseries and kindergartens, offices, theaters, cafes). There are many subtypes of furniture: for example, there are dining, kitchen, writing, and other tables. Some pieces of furniture feature elements from various types of furniture (for example, chairbeds and chair tables). The combination of several functions in one piece of furniture is achieved by means of a structural change or the consolidation of individual components into a unit. According to structural and technical characteristics, there are free-standing, built-in, hanging, and wall units. Some pieces are built as solid units, and others are knockdown units. Furniture is further subdivided into hard, upholstered, and semi-upholstered pieces.
One of the most important principles of furniture design is the creation of sets for use in rooms with special purposes, such as dining rooms, bedrooms, playrooms, and kitchens. Furniture plays an active role in the artistic organization of an interior, constituting a separate branch of decorative applied art and a field of artistic structural design. The basic elements in the artistic language of furniture are architectonics, proportion, and scale (the relation of a piece and its individual parts to a human being). The artistic elements of furniture also include the finish, texture, and color of the surface, the variety of which is achieved by different finishing techniques, such as painting or lacquering. Painting, sculpture, and ornamental designs are used in the decoration of furniture.
History. The emergence of furniture dates back to the time of transition from primitive communities to a settled way of life. Furniture developed most rapidly among those tribes which, because of climatic conditions, were most compelled to live indoors. Another important prerequisite for the development of furniture was the availability of material having the necessary strength, and comparatively light weight, as well as sufficient pliability to allow it to be worked and finished. Wood was the most important material used in furniture-making. Initially those pieces of material that conformed to a desired shape were used.
As the socioeconomic structure and way of life changed, new types of furniture evolved. The development of furniture was also closely linked to the development of styles in other artistic media. Individual styles gave rise not only to individual furniture types and designs but also to new concepts concerning compositional principles. In addition, a notable influence on the decorative and, to some degree, the compositional features of furniture has been exercised by the national traditions of art and everyday life.
The oldest extant examples of furniture are from ancient Egypt. These pieces, which were intended for the pharaoh and his retinue, include chests; folding stools with X-shaped supports (a form that is still used); straight-back thrones with rectangular, slightly concave seats; rectangular four-legged tables and round tables on one support; and sloped couches with a framework supported on four legs. Ancient Egyptian furniture was primarily wooden; tools used in its manufacture include axes, saws, and adzes. The furniture was often enriched by sculptured forms, which acquired the character of structural decoration (for example, animal paws and small duck heads serving as the legs of the furniture). Ancient Egyptian furniture decorated extensively with delicate openwork relief insets (symbolic depictions of animals, the disk of the sun, and the pharaoh), sheet gold, and inlays of ivory, glass, and stone. The abundance of representational elements in ancient Egyptian furniture was apparently related to its serving not only utilitarian but also ritualistic purposes.
As far back as antiquity the peoples of tropical Africa, America, and Oceania used low wooden and stone thrones and benches. These objects had circular, oblong, or concave seats, which rested on supports in the form of stylized human or animal figurines.
The principal types of ancient Greek furniture, which were widespread among most of the population, are known to us today primarily through sculptural representations and vase paintings. Grecian furniture included chests (with a clear panel-framed design), stools on four legs or in an X shape, everyday and ceremonial (thronelike) chairs with outward curved legs, couches on high supports with concave headboards, and tables that were often low (as a result of the custom of reclining while dining and writing). Grecian furniture was made primarily of wood, using saws and planes; sometimes it was made of bronze. Furniture of the classical period, which gradually replaced the archaic style (which used forms and decorations similar to those of Egyptian furniture), was simple and had clear, sculpturally expressive, structural forms. Its restrained ornament, which emphasized structure, consisted predominantly of such motifs as meanders, palmettes, and volutes. In Hellenistic Greek furniture, which was marked by elements of decorative refinement, archaic animal motifs were revived.
The furniture of ancient Rome was designed largely in the spirit of ancient Greek models. Uniquely Roman forms were also developed, for example, a couch with a long back (the prototype of the modern sofa). Special kinds of honorary furniture, such as the curule and the solium, became widespread. The curule was a chair on crossed legs that were in the form of horns and served in public places as a seat for consuls and praetors. The solium was a thronelike seat for honored citizens in temples and thermae. Lightweight wicker furniture made from twigs was also common. The development of Roman furniture can be traced from the simple, unpretentious forms of the Republican period to the lavishness and splendor of Imperial Rome. Imperial furniture had sculptured ornament (animal motifs) and pictorial applique work of bronze and precious metals.
Domestic Byzantine furniture, examples of which have not been preserved, was largely imitative of Roman forms. Existing Byzantine cathedral furniture (bishops’ thrones and chairs [cathedrae]) reveals a similarity to Roman models. However, it is distinguished by the use of low relief (figurative or nonfigurative), which frequently covers the object’s surface almost completely.
The furniture of medieval Europe inherited very few ancient traditions and developed independently. Widespread during the early Middle Ages were chests, stools (consisting of cut tree stumps), and tables (boards placed on trestles). The tables were fairly high, as a result of the custom of sitting on stools when dining or writing. During the Romanesque period there appeared three-legged stools, armchairs with high backs, cupboards, beds (a type of coverless chest), and tables with supports in the form of vertical surfaces. Made of smoothed poles or planks cut by axes and having mortise joints, Romanesque furniture was characterized by its laconic massive forms (frequently with carved geometric, foliage, or banded ornamentation) and the blank solidity of its masses. The Gothic period witnessed the reinvention of the two-handed saw, which made it possible to obtain thin boards, and the widespread use of frame paneling, echoing Gothic architectural structures. As a result, the furniture was lighter and stronger. Gothic furniture was elongated and composed of relatively independent planes that were frequently filled with low-relief or open-work carving using Gothic architectural motifs (for example, pointed arches and ribs), foliage and geometrical designs, and figures. Many different forms of Gothic furniture are known, including chests, hutches for storing dishes (originally a chest on high supports), cupboards, armchairs, tables, and beds with wooden canopies.
Present knowledge concerning medieval Russian furniture has been obtained primarily from pictorial representations, such as icons, frescoes, and miniatures. The most popular pieces of domestic furniture were stationary wooden benches, which were usually set along all the walls of a room; smaller, movable benches, often with reversible backs, which served not only for sitting but also for sleeping; rectangular tables on four supports; stools; and chests. These simple and efficient forms, which were just as varied as those of Western European Romanesque furniture, are used today in the daily lives of the people. Existing examples of early Russian furniture (16th and 17th centuries) attest to the skillful use of rich carved decorations (foliage and geometrical motifs) and to the use of a diversity of colors.
There developed among most of the peoples of Asia the tradition of using rugs, wall niches, and mats instead of furniture. At the same time, some pieces of furniture resembling those of Europe were also well known. In medieval China there evolved various types of palace and temple furniture made of polished or lacquered wood, including tables, open sets of shelves, and cupboard-chests. These objects were frequently horizontally elongated and were marked by a smooth curvature of their internally tense forms. The reserved decorative elements (carving, painting, inlay) included nonfigurative patterns, foliage motifs, and representations of clouds that emphasized the structural design of the furniture. In the Middle East wooden and bronze furniture for mosques and madrasas appeared during the seventh and eighth centuries. This furniture, which included bookrests for the Koran and little eight-sided tables, reproduced forms of Moslem architecture (for example, a table in the form of an arched pavilion) and was covered with arabesque shapes (carving and inlay).
In Western Europe during the Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries) the improvement in the standard of living and a penchant for comfort brought about further changes in furniture forms. Two-tiered buffets, cabinets for storing documents and valuables (small chests of drawers on supporting bases), frame-construction beds with cloth canopies, cassapancas (a typically Italian form of chest with a back and arms), and armchairs upholstered with fabric or leather came into use. Made primarily of walnut, which is easy to work, Renaissance furniture, primarily in Italy, was distinguished by the structural clarity of its plastic composition, by the harmonious combination of elements of architectural orders (surface dividers in the form of pilasters, cornices, and long ribs), and by its paneled surfaces filled with reliefs or paintings depicting religious, mythological, and other themes.
With the development of the baroque style in the 17th century, there was extensive use of architectural motifs (twisted columns and broken pediments), carvings, and colored mosaics in palace furniture. A picturesque plasticity of form, permeated by dynamic curved outlines and the restless play of light and shadow, developed and at times literally merged with the interior decoration. In Italy and southern Germany furniture forms included cupboards, cabinets, and secretaries with folding boards for writing.
During the period of French absolutism in the 17th and 18th centuries, together with the evolution of lavish, grand interiors, there appeared a great diversity of types and forms of palace furniture, which were distinguished for their rich decoration. With the development of classicism in the late 17th century, veneered cabinets and double-door cupboards were made, in which austere rectangular forms were combined with rich baroque decoration (bouquets of flowers, foliage patterns). The decoration consisted of inlay (using wood of various kinds, mother-of-pearl, tortoise shell, and gilded metals), which thickly covered the surface of the piece and was inscribed within the framework of rectangular outlines. Tapestry was used to adorn thronelike armchairs with high, straight backs, as well as upholstered stools designed for ladies (taking into consideration their voluminous garments). The most important master of this period was A. C. Boulle, who created his own distinctive style.
With the flourishing of the rococo style during the second quarter of the 18th century, the extremely austere classical forms were replaced by intimate, intricately dynamic ones. The following types of furniture were most popular during this period: commodes with bulbous centers, rolltop desks (writing tables with a case enclosing the working surface), console tables, and sofas. In addition to the stationary furniture, arranged along the walls, numerous types of lightweight, easily movable, furniture, such as chairs, armchairs with backs suitable for the human body, and dinner tables, were produced. All of these pieces were covered with the same fabric to form, together with a sofa, suites. The decoration of rococo furniture was marked by randomly placed elegant patterns done by marquetry. Flowers were painted on a gold, pink, blue, or light-green background, and Chinese motifs were done in pigments or gold on black lacquer.
During the late 18th century, with the return of the classicist influence, furniture of framed-up construction (cupboard-buffets, secretaries, rolltop desks) combined the lightness of rigidly geometric structural forms with the broad, smooth, mirrorlike surfaces of mahogany, which were emphasized by restrained bronzed ornament (often in the form of antique, non-figurative motifs). The chairs and armchairs of this period, which rested on straight, fluted legs, were marked by a noticeable separation of the back from the seat, wherein the classical principle of a structurally clear division of forms also found expression. Among the famous neoclassical furniture designers were J. H. Riesener, G. Jacob, and D. Roentgen (a German master who also worked in France).
In Holland during the 17th and 18th centuries there evolved simple and practical furniture, oriented toward the daily life of the burgher class. Dutch furniture included double-door cup-boards with wide-profiled cornices; chairs with turned upright posts, crossbars, high backs, and trapeziform seats frequently upholstered with leather; and tables with massive jug-shaped legs. A similar type of furniture, but having an abundance of sculptured decoration, was popular in Germany from the 17th century.
In the mid-18th century a unique style of furniture, answering the taste of the bourgeoisie, took form in England. Acquiring the surname of its creator—T. Chippendale—this mahogany furniture combined the formal efficiency and structural clarity of the object with elegant lines and intricate patterns (with Chinese, Gothic, and rococo motifs). Classical refinement and lightness of forms marked the furniture of the late 18th-century English masters—G. Hepplewhite and T. Sheraton.
In the late 17th and the first quarter of the 18th century, Russian palace furniture was influenced by Dutch and English models. Subsequently the designs of the architects B. F. Rastrelli, C. Cameron, and G. Quarenghi reflected the spirit of Central and Southern European baroque, rococo, and classical styles.
With the affirmation in Europe of late classicism, or the empire style, during the first quarter of the 19th century, furniture often directly copying ancient Egyptian, Roman, and Greek forms acquired a monumentality of intentionally static forms, embellished with large-scale bronzed ornament in relief with motifs of ancient Roman and ancient Egyptian art. Structurally clear, it naturally blended with interiors, determining their spatial organization.
In Russia the best examples of palace and estate furniture in the empire style were designed by the architects A. N. Voronikhin, C. I. Rossi and V. P. Stasov. This furniture was frequently made from Karelian birch, which is distinguished by its effective golden color and the unique moire texture. Carved gilded wood was used as decoration instead of bronze. In Germany and Austria, empire forms were reworked between 1810 and 1850. In accordance with the image of the respectable bourgeois mode of life, furniture was adapted for intimacy and comfort.
In the late 19th century, with the decline in quality of architecture and the applied arts, the artistic quality of furniture also diminished considerably. In mass-production factories an interest in pseudostyles and nonfunctional decoration prevailed. Nevertheless, technological advances, including the pressing and bending of wood, facilitated the appearance of strong and structurally simple furniture. Thus, among the broad strata of the population there was particular demand for bentwood, or Viennese, furniture. With the emergence of the art nouveau style (late 19th and early 20th centuries), which strove for unity and independence in the design of everyday objects, a search began for new structural forms in furniture, as well as for expressiveness of texture and color. As the art nouveau forms of furniture evolved, there was a change from fanciful twisted and, at times, asymmetrical types to severe, functional forms. On the whole, furniture in the art nouveau style became less cumbersome: large framed pieces were gradually replaced by cupboards built into walls and niches. Elements of art nouveau furniture frequently were combined with romantic and neoclassical national tendencies. In Russia, national romanticism, which included a revived appreciation for the aesthetic qualities of folk art, found expression in the furniture made at Abramtsevo and at the Talashkin workshop (near Smolensk); neoclassical tendencies appeared in the furniture designed by the architects I. A . Fomin and V. A. Shchuko.
With the spread of rationalism in furniture-making in the early 20th century, the forerunners of which had been the experiments of the Chicago school during the 1880’s and 1890’s, there was an intensified search for laconic structural forms based on the use of new materials (steel tubing and bands, glued plywood). Particular importance was attached to the structural basis of a piece and its functional organization. Knockdown furniture, which could be taken apart and put back together again, as well as convertible furniture, was introduced into everyday use. Special furniture was developed for offices, banks, schools, and other settings. During the 1920’s and 1930’s many rationalist architects, particularly the Bauhaus group of teachers— W. Gropius, M. Breuer, and L. Mies van der Rohe—and Le Corbusier in France, devoted themselves to the artistic structural design of furniture.
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, Soviet furniture designers made pieces for apartment houses and new types of public buildings that answered newly risen social needs (palaces of culture, workers’ clubs). Artists of various schools took part. Such architects as A. V. Shchusev and I. A. Fomin continued in the tradition of Russian classical furniture. The teachers and students of Vkhutemas (State Higher Arts and Technical Studios) and later of Vkhutein (Higher Art and Technical Institute), the foremost being A. M. Rodchenko, L. M. Lisitskii, and V. E. Tatlin, based their work on constructivist aesthetics and attempted to design functionally coordinated built-in and convertible furniture that could be produced industrially. Industry, however, was not prepared to solve this kind of problem. During the late 1930’s the use of traditional forms and designs in furniture (and in architecture) led to a temporary retreat from innovative techniques and a return to past traditions. Ostentatious tendencies arose in furniture design that were often detrimental to the solution of functional problems.
From 1950 to the early 1970’s the principles of rationalism in furniture were developed further in Western Europe and America. Convertible and knockdown furniture, consisting of standardized components made from chipboard, colored plastics, and other new materials, has become widespread. Modern furniture, in addition to having common structural and aesthetic principles, has in some cases retained unique national elements. Scandinavian architect-designers, such as A. Aalto from Finland, A. Jacobsen from Denmark, and B. Mattson from Sweden, have been particularly successful in organically combining national features with innovative designs. Their work is marked by an appreciation of the beauty of wood texture, the pliability of bent and laminated wood components, and the intentional use of rough-textured, raised fabrics. However, such standardized furniture frequently lacks original traits, and the emphasis on structure occasionally deprives the furniture of its principal objective—human suitability. These tendencies have led to a certain revival of former styles.
In the USSR between the late 1950’s and the early 1970’s, the excessively ornamental and stylized tendencies in furniture design that had hindered mass production, were overcome. Economical and structurally efficient furniture was designed for residential and public buildings, including cupboards with adjustable shelves, room dividers, built-in shelves, convertible armchair-beds, sofa-beds, and kitchen furniture. In accordance with the task of creating an aesthetically harmonious and humanistic environment, furniture forms and ornament have begun to be scientifically determined in relation to human physiology, anatomy, and psychology. Thus, modern furniture echoes the most fruitful ideas of furniture design of the 1920’s and early 1930’s. At the same time, in present-day design the mechanical copying of the past is absent.
Furniture from the late 1950’s through the early 1970’s has developed considerably in terms of quality as a result of a high degree of technological progress. The standardization of components and parts, the introduction of new materials (chipboard, fiberboard, polyester varnishes and enamels, plastics), and the mechanization of manufacturing are the principal developments in furniture production. As a result of size standardization, the coordination of furniture and its components with building modules is now a common procedure. This step has increased economic efficiency and has made it possible to vary the arrangement of pieces in relation to the dimensions and purposes of a room. The most important advantage of the new furniture is the possibility of combining several frame pieces of various functional purposes into common block units, by means of which a given space may be divided into functional areas. Moreover, such block units serve, so to speak, as a background for movable armchairs, chairs, and tables.
Representatives from nearly all of the Union republics are participating in the design of modern Soviet furniture. Basing their work on common aesthetic and technological principles, they impart national traits to their furniture. These traits are revealed particularly in the use of the decorative qualities of materials. The designers’ own styles are also reflected in the furniture. The foremost furniture designers during the 1960’s and early 1970’s included Iu. V. Sluchevskii, K. K. Blomerius, and E. S. Bocharova from the RSFSR, E. Velbri from Estonia, H. Talberg from Latvia, and V. Beiga from Lithuania.
Furniture design has developed considerably in such socialist countries as the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary, where a large diversity of pieces of contemporary design and form for both residential and public buildings are produced. The furniture consists of standardized components and uses the most modern materials.
REFERENCESSobolev, N. I. Stili v mebeli. Moscow, 1939.
Popova, Z. Russkaia mebeV: Konets 18 veka. Moscow, 1957.
Sokolova, T. M. Ocherkipo istorii khudozhestvennoi mebeli 15-19 vekov. Leningrad, 1967.
Obzor khudozhestvennogo konstruirovaniia mebeli. Moscow, 1973.
Russkaia mebeV v Gosudarstvennom Ermitazhe. Leningrad, 1973. (Album.)
Feulner, A. Kunstgeschichte des Mobels seit dem Altertum. Vienna .
Haslund, O. International mffbell haandbog, vols. 1-3. Copenhagen, 1945-47.
Cimburew, F., J. Holaw, W. Hoirain, and L. Wirth. Dejiny ndbytkoveho umeni, vols. 1-3. Brno, 1948-50.
Boger, L. A. The Complete Guide to Furniture Styles. London, 1961. New York, 1969.
L. V. TYDMAN (the history of furniture prior to the second half of the 19th century)
N. A. LUPPOV (the history of furniture in the second half of the 19th and the 20th century).
a rectangular bar made of metal, wood, vinyl plastic, or fiber; used in printing, mainly to fill in large blank areas in a printing form (for example, the margins of book pages).
What does it mean when you dream about furniture?
A dream that emphasizes furniture can refer to attitudes from the past, particularly if the piece of furniture is a familiar item from one’s childhood. Can also represent current attitudes and beliefs. Self-image. Another possibility is the familiar expression about having been around so long that one has become “part of the furniture.”