opportunity structure

opportunity structure

the social patterning of opportunities that are available to different individuals. Although originally conceived within deviancy theory (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960) as a way of developing Robert MERTON's work on ANOMIE by identifying variations in opportunities to engage in different kinds of illegitimate activity, the concept is now often employed in a general way to draw attention to the fact that social opportunities are rarely evenly or equally distributed. For example, the paucity of women in ÉLITE positions in society generally, as well as in particular organizations, is due to the fact that they confront a different opportunity structure compared with men; working-class under achievement in education is a product of the different opportunity structure which the home and school present to manual workers children compared with those from professional backgrounds, etc. see also EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY.
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Faced with an indifferent or hostile political opportunity structure, actors may want to mobilize support from throughout the network to convince the decision makers that they should agree with the actors' agenda.
Table 1 Factors Associated with Late Prenatal Care Initiation Predicted Direction of Effect on Odds of Late Prenatal Variable Care Initiation Individual-level factors Predisposing Factors Age Teenager + Education Not high school + Race\ethnicity Ethnic minority + Previous live birth Three or more + Enabling resources Health insurance Medicaid + Uninsured + Marital status Unmarried + Need factors Medical risk Evidence of risk - Neighborhood-level factors Economic opportunity structure Neighborhood in distress + Health care opportunity structure Primary care shortage area +
Political opportunity structure refers to aspects in the political environment that facilitate or discourage collective action.
Instead, differences in opportunity structure between a city and the close-by tourist area are analysed, and the hypotheses deal with the impact of these differences on crime patterns and crime careers.
At the macro-level della Porta uses the concept of political opportunity structure to describe how some movements were integrated into the political process and others were not.
Women are more likely to flourish in an environment in which the opportunity structure is anchored in an equal opportunities policy, and in which women form the majority of the labour force.
The opportunity structure in Israel's education system is unequal.
He proposes a multilayered analysis in which the primary focus is on strategic action by actors in an opportunity structure.
Nevertheless, the study should be useful to obtain a concise overview of the low socio-economic situation of women in Bangladesh, and of the extent to which that situation persists till now--largely because the socio-cultural institutions discriminate against women and provide a limited opportunity structure to them.
The opportunity structure encompasses the world of education and training as well as the world of work; it begins with the developmental opportunities available to children growing up in different environments and extends upward through all the roles in society, including but not limited to jobs, that one might hold as an adult.
Among the topics are state division, control networks, and the opportunity structure for the coverage of contentious issues; the Wu Ying case and the partisan nature of Chinese intellectuals on microblogs; a world of black and white: Internet practices in an urban village--the distribution of social resources and ecology of communication in a grassroots society; and the virtual organization of social movement entrepreneurs: the Internet and new forms of protest in contemporary Chinese society.
I argue that the issue opportunity structure in mainland China opens space for environmental protesters to use social media as an organizational tool in a way that defuses tension/violence and increases the chance of success.