opportunity structure

opportunity structure

the social patterning of opportunities that are available to different individuals. Although originally conceived within deviancy theory (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960) as a way of developing Robert MERTON's work on ANOMIE by identifying variations in opportunities to engage in different kinds of illegitimate activity, the concept is now often employed in a general way to draw attention to the fact that social opportunities are rarely evenly or equally distributed. For example, the paucity of women in ÉLITE positions in society generally, as well as in particular organizations, is due to the fact that they confront a different opportunity structure compared with men; working-class under achievement in education is a product of the different opportunity structure which the home and school present to manual workers children compared with those from professional backgrounds, etc. see also EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY.
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Among the topics are state division, control networks, and the opportunity structure for the coverage of contentious issues; the Wu Ying case and the partisan nature of Chinese intellectuals on microblogs; a world of black and white: Internet practices in an urban village--the distribution of social resources and ecology of communication in a grassroots society; and the virtual organization of social movement entrepreneurs: the Internet and new forms of protest in contemporary Chinese society.
I argue that the issue opportunity structure in mainland China opens space for environmental protesters to use social media as an organizational tool in a way that defuses tension/violence and increases the chance of success.
Opportunity Structure The objective of the project is to increase coverage of improved hygiene and sanitation for an additional 3 million people.
The Secretary concluded with four ideas he is "convinced would both transform our children's opportunity structure and, just as importantly, help them believe that they have a future," including broader access to early childhood education and meaningful incentives for great teachers to work in high-poverty schools, as well as mentorships and support for job creation in poor neighborhoods.
For that matter, viewing institutional flexibility as a feature of the opportunity structure (91-92) begs the question of where that structure "ends" and internal control "begins.
The inclusion of National Outlook and Shas in coalition governments created a political opportunity structure and granted them crucial state resources.
The opportunity structure framework has become a cornerstone of presidency research over the past generation.
But the legislators and regulators enacting these new protections were responding to pervasive problems they observed in the opportunity structure of our society--problems of a particular kind that I call bottlenecks.
These three structural conditions generate the limited opportunity structure.
In a UNU-WIDER working paper published in December 2011, I used the case of Cambodia's labour rights regime to illustrate how the political opportunity structure was adjusted to incorporate workers' voices and the potential for those channels to be used to promote other types of protection.
To answer these questions, the Task Force assessed the practice of political science to determine whether it is living up to its full potential as a scholarly discipline to enrich the discourse, broaden the understanding, and model the behavior necessary to build strong nation-states in a rapidly changing world where population shifts and related issues regarding race, ethnicity, immigration, and equal opportunity structure some of the most significant conflicts affecting politics and policymaking.