ordeal


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Related to ordeal: trial by ordeal

ordeal,

ancient legal custom whereby an accused person was required to perform a test, the outcome of which decided the person's guilt or innocence. By an ordeal, appeal was made to divine authority to decide the guilt or innocence of one accused of a crime or to choose between disputants. This custom was known to ancient peoples as well as to those of fairly advanced material culture. Until recent times the ordeal was practiced in many parts of Asia and Africa. In the early Middle Ages it was widely used to settle legal questions in Western Europe. In England it was a regular form of trial and persisted until trial by juryjury,
body convened to make decisions of fact in legal proceedings. Development of the Modern Jury

Historians do not agree on the origin of the English jury.
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 became common. Forms of the ordeal varied with the locality and with the nature of the crime. The ordeal by fire—walking through fire or putting the hand into a flame—was common, and there were other fiery ordeals, such as walking on hot plowshares or plunging the hand into molten metal. Usually it was believed that if the accused were innocent God would spare him. Commonly there was a lapse of several days before the injuries were inspected; then someone considered a competent judge decided from the severity of the injuries as to innocence or guilt. One form of ordeal, the trial by water, was that used to determine whether or not an accused woman was a witch. The woman was bound and cast into water that had been blessed. If the water rejected her—i.e., if she floated—she was considered guilty. If the water received her, she was considered innocent. A common form of ordeal in contentions between two parties was the submission to some trial of chance, e.g., casting lotslots.
The casting of lots was an ancient method of making a choice, settling a dispute, or determining a course of action. In biblical times lots were cast to determine the will of God (it is believed that the Urim and Thummim, mysterious sacred objects carved on the breastplate
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. Allied to this in spirit was the duelduel,
prearranged armed fight with deadly weapons, usually swords or pistols, between two persons concerned with a point of honor. The duel may have originated in the wager of battle, an early mode of trial in which an accused person fought with his accuser under judicial
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, which supposedly worked on the principle that God would favor the cause of the righteous in the battle. The trial by battle or by combat (sometimes called a judicial duel or wager of battle) was a recognized procedure in the Middle Ages. It was introduced from France to England after the Norman Conquest. In this trial, one of the contending parties issued a wager of battle, or challenge. Both parties under oath declared their assertions truthful; a duel was fought, and the victor was awarded the decision. In case one of the parties was a woman, a child, or a feeble man, he or she could be represented by a champion, i.e., a knight who was a relative or who had agreed to fight. As time went on a class of professional champions arose. The Roman Catholic Church from early times disapproved of the ordeal despite its apparently religious aspect, and in 1215 it categorically forbade the clergy to take part in such ceremonies.

Ordeal

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

The torture inflicted upon an accused witch during the persecutions. It might take the form of red hot irons, thumbscrews, boot jacks, water torture, or any of a number of atrocious punishments administered by the Christian persecutors.

The "Ordeal" is also the name given to the part of the Wiccan initiation ceremony in which the neophyte is bound and blindfolded. There is no torture involved here, but the very fact of not knowing what is about to happen is considered an ordeal of sorts.

ordeal

History a method of trial in which the guilt or innocence of an accused person was determined by subjecting him to physical danger, esp by fire or water. The outcome was regarded as an indication of divine judgment
References in classic literature ?
Both hunger and thirst assailed her now, and realizing that she must descend or die of starvation, she at last summoned courage to undertake the ordeal of continuing her journey through the jungle.
And Michael went through the humiliating ordeal of being jerked erect on his hind legs by Johnny while Collins with the stick cracked him under the jaw and across the knees.
Blanche was far too deeply interested in the coming ordeal to care to defend herself: she looked as if she had not even heard what her step-mother had said of her.
Nor can one censure her after the frightful ordeal from which she was still suffering.
And so at last the long ordeal ended; glasses were emptied, men said good-night, and I followed Raffles to his room.
How he happened to have come to Africa he did not tell them, leaving them to assume he had forgotten the incidents of his life prior to the frightful ordeals that had wrecked him mentally and physically.
A TEENAGE girl was subjected to a terrifying ordeal by a man who sexually assaulted and robbed her in broad daylight.
The ordeal Police said the accused brothers lived in a 12x12 ( 144 sq ft) slum tenement at Wadala truck terminal with their mother and two sisters and would allegedly take turns to rape their sisters.
RSPCA acting chief inspector Emma Smith said: "This poor cat suffered a horrific ordeal.
A SADISTIC small-time drug dealer subjected a teenage girl to a terrifying torture ordeal over a PS50 cannabis debt.
She was determined the ordeal would not put her off elevators so the following day, she ventured into a lift in Ikea - only to get stuck again.
Following the half-hour ordeal, they made off with his flat screen TV, Volkswagen Polo motability car and an irreplaceable gold cross that belonged to his late mother.