organizational crimelaw-breaking by organizations such as businesses or state bureaucracies. Typical examples would be the flouting of health, hygiene or safety regulations, or the failure to observe pollution controls (S. Box, Power, Crime and Mystification, 1983). Precise figures are difficult to obtain, but organizational crime is certainly not insignificant. More working
days each year are lost, for example, because of industrial injury and accident than through strikes, and many of these – perhaps 40% (J. Hagan, Structural Criminology, 1988) – are due to employer negligence.
Organizational crime (or ‘crimes of the powerful’) should be distinguished from WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, which usually implies criminal activity (such as embezzlement) exercised against organizations by their employees, and from organized crime, which refers to criminal organizations or networks involved in the systematic provision of illegal goods and services, such as those engaged in international drug trafficking.