The OLYMPEX dataset will serve both NASA's need for validation of its satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithms over mountainous terrain and the more general need to advance our fundamental understanding of the physics and dynamics of frontal and orographic precipitation
For example, when the air masses coming from the Black Sea encounter Istranca Mountains, this encounter leads to orographic precipitation
in the area.
The most humid areas are found between 1950 and 2450 m asl within the Tropical Pluviseasonal bioclimate; this altitudinal range is where the effect of orographic precipitation
is intensified, a situation that is borne out by the high values of the ombrothermic indices (Table 1) and by the type of vegetation, characterised by large expanses of rainforest and cloud mountain grassland.
Through the process known as orographic precipitation
, when moist air rises up a mountain and cools to the point of condensation which leads to rain or snow, could explain the creation of valley networks which would appear on one side of a Martian mountain but not on the other side.
The climatology of small scale orographic precipitation
over the Olympic mountains: Patterns and processes, Quartely Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 134(633): 817-839.
occurs when warm, moist air is lifted over mountains.
Precipitation caused by the uplift over topographic surfaces is called orographic precipitation
shallow orographic precipitation
and temperature inversions).
Steiner, 2005: Cross-barrier flow during orographic precipitation
events: Results from MAP and IMPROVE.
However, the microwave technique fails over land and ice surfaces because of their high and varying emissivities, and satellite methods cannot measure winds within ARs offshore, even though winds strongly control the water vapor transport and orographic precipitation
enhancement upon AR landfall.
These elevated sites induce orographic precipitation
when moist air is forced upward over them.
5 (red pins)] suggested that orographic precipitation
was a predisposing factor for positive feedback.