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treatment and care of the teeth and associated oral structures. Dentistry is mainly concerned with tooth decay, disease of the supporting structures, such as the gums, and faulty positioning of the teeth.
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a branch of stomatology concerned with the study, treatment, and prevention of anomalies of development of the teeth and maxillofacial skeleton. The cause of these anomalies can be hereditary or dependent on prenatal and postnatal conditions of growth and development in the child. Common causes of anomalies of the maxillodental system include metabolic disturbances and childhood diseases that adversely affect the formation of the skeleton. Harmful habits, such as finger sucking, misuse of nipples, and labored nasal breathing, may contribute to the rise of anomalies. Deformities of the maxillodental system result in functional impairment of speech and of the digestive and respiratory organs.
The purpose of orthodontic treatment is to make cosmetic and functional improvements in the maxillodental system and to normalize the child’s development. Orthodontic treatment is complex, making use of special appliances combined with pharmacological agents and physical therapy; sometimes, surgery followed by logopedic treatment is necessary. The systematic care of the mouth in preschool and school children is another aspect of orthodontic treatment.
REFERENCESKalvelis, D. A. Ortodontiia. Leningrad, 1964.
Kurliandskii, V. Iu. Ortopedicheskaia stomatologiia: atlas, vol. 2: Ortodontiia, travmatologiia, cheliustnoe i litsevoe protezirovanie. Moscow, 1970.
A. A. KUZNETSOVA