Various techniques, including free bone grafts or the use of metallic mesh, have been used as a more durable repair of the osseous defect
of the anterior fossa floor.
Clinical evaluation of Bio-Oss: a bovine-derived xenograft for the treatment of periodontal osseous defects
Hydroxyapatite alloplast has been proven to be useful for augmentation procedures in osseous defects
in the peri-implantitis lesions and intraosseous periodontal defects.
The periodontal flap technique is frequently considered when large areas (more than 6 teeth) require treatment, osseous defects
are present or in cases where gingivectomy would remove excessive amounts of keratinized tissue resulting in the development of a mucogingival defect.
They contribute to the repair of osseous defects
and to the enhancement of osseous ingrowth.
On imaging, multiple localized osseous defects
, soft tissue and bony disruption, periostitis, and sclerosis are seen in long-standing cases.
It is often mixed with autograft, and it is approved for use in fractures that also have been treated with internal or external fixation, as well as for osseous defects
that do not bear significant load.
These defects may be surgically-created osseous defects
or osseous defects
created from traumatic injury to the bone.
Gingivitis may be generalized and associated with bleeding on probing, the presence of supragingival and subgingival plaque, calculus and severe bone loss including osseous defects
Significant osseous defects
are less common but if not addressed can lead to recurrent instability.
The additional indications approved under the CE Mark are for the treatment of osseous defects
resulting from tooth extraction and trauma.