outbreeding

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outbreeding

[′au̇t‚brēd·iŋ]
(genetics)
References in periodicals archive ?
The development and application of isozymes was a breakthrough in estimating plant population outcrossing rates and was mainly explored in perennial trees.
2009) Modelling the outcrossing between genetically modified and conventional maize with equation discovery.
stolonifera is neither selfing nor maintaining a mixed-mating system, but is routinely outcrossing.
They genetically engineered the worms, which normally practice a combination of both selfing and outcrossing, to reproduce either just by selfing or just by outcrossing.
Here, following Baker's emphasis, we focus specifically on the difference in reproductive assurance between selfing and outcrossing cosexuals.
Antonovics (1968) found that, on harsh sites characterized by low pH and heavy metals, grass species had the ability to change from an outcrossing to a self-pollinating mode of reproduction in order to prevent dilution of the gene pool by adjacent unadapted populations.
Researchers had thought that selfing does not diminish the frequency of outcrossing, because self-pollination uses such a small portion of the pollen pool, Harder explains.
In mixed mating systems, outcrossing provides opportunity for gene flow while selfing provides reproductive assurance, allowing plants to reproduce and maintain viable populations when pollinators or potential mates are scarce (Jain, 1976; Busch, 2011).
Therefore, data are needed on outcrossing rates, outcrossing distance, and the consequences of gene flow.
Although canola is primarily a selfing species, outcrossing is in the range of 20-30%, and canola pollen can move long distances, several km at least, primarily via insect pollinators.
Theoretical models incorporating these two factors usually predict that populations should evolve toward only two stable endpoints: predominant outcrossing associated with strong inbreeding depression, or predominant selfing associated with weak inbreeding depression (Lande and Schemske 1985, Charlesworth and Charlesworth 1987, Jarne and Charlesworth 1993).