overstory


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Related to overstory: understory

overstory

1. An upper floor.
2. Same as clerestory.
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Small canopy gaps created by the mortality of one or a few overstory trees are currently the primary form of disturbance in many eastern deciduous forests (Runkle 1990).
The strong shift from Engelmann spruce to subalpine fi r overstory dominance and the increased vigor of the survivors (e.
Results of this and complementary research suggest that the lower tree line in southern Arizona is stabilized by self-enhancing feedback mechanisms of overstory shade, seed dispersal, and seedling establishment, coupled with strong abiotic constraints beyond the current ecotone.
The most common overstory cover at bedding sites included caves-rock ledges (34.
Overstory trees included red maple, swamp white oak, black ash, and American elm (Ulmus americana).
The overstory tree canopy is predominantly oaks (Quercus spp.
They are very shade-tolerant trees, and can be planted under an overstory, but very heavy shade will retard growth for many years.
Percent cover of overstory, midstory, shrub, and herbaceous layers was placed into categories (0 = 0%; 1 = 1 to 25%; 2 = 26 to 50%; 3 = 51 to 75%; 4 = 76 to 100%) based on ocular estimation (Hamel et al.
A forest fire may alter the soil resistance to erosion by consuming, in part or in total, a) the under- and overstory canopies, b) the duff/litter layer, and c) the root network.
The mean of species-specific percent cover from ground, midstory and overstory layers was calculated for each species on each plot and the means that satisfied the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variances were compared among plots using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey multiple comparisons (Sokal & Rohlf 1995) using the statistical program SPSS (SPSS 1988).
Habitat characteristics including overstory cover, tree condition, and ground cover were recorded at 25 random tree plots and 26 woodpecker tree plots (7 Red-headed, 19 Lewis').