Represents input of material (crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates
or finished products) to processing units at a refinery that is being processed (input) into a particular unit for the first time.
In California, ethanol is being blended into gasoline in areas that do not fall under the Clean Air Act oxygenate
The concentrations of alternative oxygenates
found around leaking tanks in the new study are already surprisingly high, says environmental engineer Susan E.
However, because less than half as much ethanol is required to provide the same oxygenating benefit as MTBE, the overall oxygenate
content of gasoline is expected to decline through 2006 as ethanol replaces MTBE.
Bluewater spokesperson Brooke Coleman claims that the California Air Resources Board "chose not to include data showing the air quality and global warming benefits of oxygenates
like biomass and ethanol.
Oil refiners have the ability to produce gasoline that achieves just as much air pollution reduction without oxygenates
such as MTBE, but the law currently mandates their use.
Other compounds used as oxygenates
are ethanol, tertiary-butyl alcohol, ethyl-tertiary-butyl ether, and tertiary-amyl-methyl ether.
It is predicted that the supply of oxygenates
will be insufficient to meet demand and less reformulated gasoline will be used than the regulators desire (ref.
According to Mike Lidgard, with EPA's regional air programs branch in Seattle, prices in different regions will fluctuate depending upon the type and availability of oxygenates
, cost differences between suppliers and other variables.
Our best University of California scientists commissioned by the State of California and many others long ago reported that "there is no significant additional air quality benefit to the use of oxygenates
such as MTBE in reformulated gasoline relative to the alternative CaRFG2 (California Reformulated Gas) nonoxygenated formulations.
Gasoline will remain the largest market for fuel additives, though the ban on the use of MTBE in California and the potential phase out across the US of this oxygenate
will result in significant decreases in the gasoline segment, as MTBE is the single largest additive used in gasoline.
The bill removes the federal mandate for oxygenates
, provides additional funds for underground storage tank clean-up, and affirms a limited liability provision for production and marketing of MTBE, an additive required under the Clean Air Act.