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examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.


Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.


References in periodicals archive ?
20) Surgical intervention should be carried out as a direct continuation of panendoscopy of the pharynx, esophagus, larynx, and trachea.
Suggested management for each type of injury Type Management 1 Observation, humidification, antibiotics, steroids, respiratory therapy 2 Tracheotomy/intubation, panendoscopy, antibiotics, steroids 3 Panendoscopy, open surgical repair with or without stenting and with or without tracheotomy or tracheostomy 4 Panendoscopy, open surgical repair with stenting, with or without tracheotomy or tracheostomy 5 Tracheotomy/intubation, panendoscopy, reconstruction, restoration, or resection with end-to-end anastomosis with or without stenting (a long-term tube may serve as a stent) Source: Modified from data included in references 1, 2, and 3.
Panendoscopy with directed biopsies were negative for malignancy.
In the case of medically infirm patients with advanced head and neck cancer who are not surgical candidates, a complete panendoscopy can be performed in the office using a transnasal esophagoscope.
Panendoscopy with biopsy of the vocal folds was performed and the specimen was also sent for fungal cultures.
These patients had been diagnosed on the basis of physical examination, panendoscopy, and advanced imaging studies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging).
Thirty consecutive patients who required diagnostic panendoscopy were selected for this study.
In a patient with a cervical lump, diagnostic procedures such as panendoscopy, biopsy, and staging will often, but riot always, identify the site of the primary tumor.
In retrospect, a more intensive metastatic workup for our patient--with panendoscopy, liver ultrasound, computed tomography of the brain, and whole-body bone scanning--could have changed our treatment approach from curative to palliative.
We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy as part of routine panendoscopy in an academic setting.
Microdirect laryngoscopy and panendoscopy with bronchial washings were negative.
It can be performed either in the office setting or during panendoscopy.