papacy


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See also: Popes of the Roman Catholic Church (table)Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
In the following list, the date of election, rather than of consecration, is given. Before St. Victor I (189), dates may err by one year. Antipopes—i.e., those men whose elections have been declared uncanonical—are indicated.

St.
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papacy

(pā`pəsē), office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. PeterPeter, Saint,
d. A.D. 64?, most prominent of the Twelve Apostles, listed first in the Gospels, and traditionally the first bishop of Rome. His original name was Simon, but Jesus gave him the nickname Cephas [Aramaic, = rock], which was translated into Greek as Petros [Gr.
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. The pope therefore claims to be the shepherd of all Christians and representative (vicar or vicegerent) of Christ. The claim of Petrine supremacy and (by virtue of Peter's connection to Rome) Roman supremacy, is based on Matthew 16:18–19. Papal supremacy is not acknowledged outside the Roman Catholic Church. The church further holds that God will not permit the pope to make an error in a solemn official declaration concerning a matter of faith or morality (see infallibilityinfallibility
, in Christian thought, exemption from the possibility of error, bestowed on the church as a teaching authority, as a gift of the Holy Spirit. It has been believed since the earliest times to be guaranteed in such scriptural passages as John 14.16,17.
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).

The pope has also traditionally been regarded as patriarch of the West, with the great majority, although not all, of the Christians recognizing his authority as pope also under his authority as patriarchpatriarch,
in Christian churches, title of certain exalted bishops, implying authority over a number of other bishops. There were originally three patriarchates: the West, held by the bishop of Rome (the pope; see papacy; Benedict XVI dropped the title in 2006), Alexandria, and
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. This question of areas of authority is practical only with regard to some of the Eastern-rite patriarchs in communion with the pope who may, for example, appoint bishops without papal confirmation. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI dropped patriach of the West from among his official titles in an ecumenical gesture toward the Orthodox Eastern churches; the title had been assumed by Pope Theodore I in 642. The pope generally lives in Rome, of which a portion (Vatican City) is politically independent and under his rule; the pope is thus head of a state and owes no political allegiance (see Vatican CityVatican City
or Holy See,
officially Holy See (State of the Vatican City), independent state (2005 est. pop. 900), 108.7 acres (44 hectares), within the city of Rome, Italy, and the residence of the pope, who is its absolute ruler.
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; cardinalcardinal
[Lat.,=attached to and thus "belonging to" the hinge], in the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the highest body of the church. The sacred college of cardinals of the Holy Roman Church is the electoral college of the papacy. Its members are appointed by the pope.
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; papal electionpapal election,
election of the pope by the college of cardinals meeting in secret conclave in the Sistine Chapel not less than 15 nor more than 18 days after the death of the previous pontiff. In the case of a resignation, the conclave may begin earlier.
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).

For a chronological list of popes and antipopes see the table entitled Popes of the Roman Catholic ChurchPopes of the Roman Catholic Church
In the following list, the date of election, rather than of consecration, is given. Before St. Victor I (189), dates may err by one year. Antipopes—i.e., those men whose elections have been declared uncanonical—are indicated.

St.
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. For the ecclesiastical framework, the teaching, the history, and the geographical distribution of the church, see Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic Church,
Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
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. See also ChristianityChristianity,
religion founded in Palestine by the followers of Jesus. One of the world's major religions, it predominates in Europe and the Americas, where it has been a powerful historical force and cultural influence, but it also claims adherents in virtually every country of
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.

In the Early Church

There is no unequivocal evidence about the status of the pope in the earliest days of the church. That he was accorded special honor as the successor of St. Peter is acknowledged, but whereas Roman Catholic historians hold that the peculiar position of the Holy See was recognized and accorded authority, non-Catholic historians in general contend that the bishop of Rome was accorded honor over the other bishops, not authority. As missionaries sent directly from the city founded new churches throughout the West, more and more reverence was given to the pope. The Roman church was being enriched with gifts by converts, and it supported struggling young churches everywhere and supplied funds for charitable foundations all over Italy.

As the political power of the city of Rome declined, the pope inherited some of the Roman emperor's position as symbol and defender of civilization. The combination of assurance and intrepidity in dealing with barbarian attacks and rulers of emerging states in this period (300–700) was a mark of the great popes—saints Julius IJulius I, Saint,
pope (337–52), a Roman; successor of St. Marcus. In the controversy over Arianism, when both sides appealed to him for support, he convened a synod at Rome (340), at which were present St.
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, Innocent IInnocent I, Saint,
d. 417, pope (401–17), an Italian; successor of St. Anastasius I. A powerful champion of papal supremacy in the entire Church, he upheld St. John Chrysostom and condemned Pelagius. His 36 surviving decretal letters are an important source for canon law.
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, Leo ILeo I, Saint
(Saint Leo the Great), c.400–461, pope (440–61), an Italian; successor of St. Sixtus III. A Doctor of the Church, he was one of the greatest pontiffs of the early years of the church. He waged a firm campaign against schism and heresy.
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, Gregory IGregory I, Saint
(Saint Gregory the Great), c.540–604, pope (590–604), a Roman; successor of Pelagius II. A Doctor of the Church, he was distinguished for his spiritual and temporal leadership. His feast is celebrated on Mar. 12.
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, and Martin IMartin I, Saint,
d. 655?, pope (649–55?), an Italian, b. Todi; successor of Theodore I. On his accession he summoned a great council at the Lateran, as St. Maximus had urged, to deal with Monotheletism, discussion of which had been forbidden by Byzantine Emperor Constans
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. The papacy gained prestige in the West and was powerful in doctrinal disputes, especially in the struggles over ArianismArianism
, Christian heresy founded by Arius in the 4th cent. It was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity. As a priest in Alexandria, Arius taught (c.
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, MonophysitismMonophysitism
[Gr.,=belief in one nature], a heresy of the 5th and 6th cent., which grew out of a reaction against Nestorianism. It was anticipated by Apollinarianism and was continuous with the principles of Eutyches, whose doctrine had been rejected in 451 at Chalcedon (see
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, and MonotheletismMonotheletism
or Monothelitism
[Gr.,=one will], 7th-century opinion condemned as heretical by the Third Council of Constantinople in 680 (see Constantinople, Third Council of).
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.

In the Middle Ages

A fateful event for the papacy was the donation of lands made to the pope by the Frankish king Pepin the ShortPepin the Short
(Pepin III), c.714–768, first Carolingian king of the Franks (751–68), son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne. Succeeding his father as mayor of the palace (741), he ruled Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman (d.
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 in 756. The papacy had already been given lands (since the 4th cent.), but it was the Donation of Pepin that came to be considered the real as well as the symbolic founding of the Papal StatesPapal States,
Ital. Lo Stato della Chiesa, from 754 to 1870 an independent territory under the temporal rule of the popes, also called the States of the Church and the Pontifical States. The territory varied in size at different times; in 1859 it included c.
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. The pope thus became a powerful lay prince as well as an ecclesiastical ruler. This intermingling of powers was a determining condition in the struggle between church and statechurch and state,
the relationship between the religion or religions of a nation and the civil government of that nation, especially the relationship between the Christian church and various civil governments.
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 that was a main theme in the history of the West in the Middle AgesMiddle Ages,
period in Western European history that followed the disintegration of the West Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th cent. and lasted into the 15th cent., i.e., into the period of the Renaissance.
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. Strong lay princes attempted to direct the church just as the pope tried to establish secular as well as spiritual supremacy over the rulers.

A central point at issue in the 11th and 12th cent. was investitureinvestiture,
in feudalism, ceremony by which an overlord transferred a fief to a vassal or by which, in ecclesiastical law, an elected cleric received the pastoral ring and staff (the symbols of spiritual office) signifying the transfer of the office.
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, but the conflict was far wider and deeper. Although all in the West affirmed that Christendom was under the pope in Rome, that affirmation had little bearing on the question of papal supremacy in secular affairs. By crowning (800) CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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, Leo IIILeo III, Saint,
pope (795–816), a Roman; successor of Adrian I. He was attacked about the face and eyes by members of Adrian's family, who hoped to render him unfit for the papacy. Leo recovered and fled (799) to Charlemagne's protection at Paderborn.
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 at once sponsored the empire and sanctioned the creation of a state which, as the Roman Empire (see Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman Empire,
designation for the political entity that originated at the coronation as emperor (962) of the German king Otto I and endured until the renunciation (1806) of the imperial title by Francis II.
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), was to be the chief antagonist of the papacy for centuries.

The papacy reached a high point of corruption in the 10th cent., when the Holy See was cynically bought and sold. Under Leo IX reform began, but bitter feeling between East and West brought the break with patriarch of Constantinople (1054); late in the 11th cent. sweeping reforms were carried out by the forceful Gregory VIIGregory VII, Saint,
d. 1085, pope (1073–85), an Italian (b. near Rome) named Hildebrand (Ital. Ildebrando); successor of Alexander II. He was one of the greatest popes. Feast: May 25.
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. From that time forward the relative power of the papacy in quarrels with the emperor and with the kings of England, France, Naples, and Spain depended largely on the successes of individual popes and individual rulers. Pope Alexander IIIAlexander III,
d. 1181, pope (1159–81), a Sienese named Rolandus [Bandinelli?], successor of Adrian IV. He was a canonist who had studied law under Gratian and had taught at Bologna.
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 was pitted against Roman Emperor Frederick IFrederick I
or Frederick Barbarossa
[Ital.,=red beard], c.1125–90, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90), son of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, nephew and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III.
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 and against King Henry IIHenry II,
1133–89, king of England (1154–89), son of Matilda, queen of England, and Geoffrey IV, count of Anjou. He was the founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line in England and one of the ablest and most remarkable of the English kings.
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 of England, and Pope Innocent IIIInnocent III,
b. 1160 or 1161, d. 1216, pope (1198–1216), an Italian, b. Anagni, named Lotario di Segni; successor of Celestine III. Innocent III was succeeded by Honorius III.
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, despite opposition by Emperor Otto IVOtto IV,
1175?–1218, Holy Roman emperor (1209–15) and German king, son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. He was brought up at the court of his uncle King Richard I of England, who secured his election (1198) as antiking to Philip of Swabia after the death of Holy
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 and Emperor Frederick IIFrederick II,
1194–1250, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50), son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and of Constance, heiress of Sicily.
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, made himself virtual arbiter of the West.

Innocent's reign (1198–1216) marked the zenith of papal secular power. As a religious leader Innocent worked to reform clerical morals and combat heresy. He ordered (1208) a crusade against the heretical AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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 in S France that ended disastrously and cast a shadow over his pontificate. A century later Boniface VIIIBoniface VIII,
1235–1303, pope (1294–1303), an Italian (b. Anagni) named Benedetto Caetani; successor of St. Celestine V.

As a cardinal he was independent of the factions in the papal court, and he opposed the election of Celestine.
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, an able canon lawyer, proved himself no match for the ruthless king of France, Philip IVPhilip IV
(Philip the Fair), 1268–1314, king of France (1285–1314), son and successor of Philip III. The policies of his reign greatly strengthened the French monarchy and increased the royal revenues.
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.

Pope Clement VClement V,
1264–1314, pope (1305–14), a Frenchman named Bertrand de Got; successor of Benedict XI. He was made archbishop of Bordeaux by Boniface VIII, who trusted him; surprisingly, he was also in some favor at the court of Philip IV, even though Philip and the pope
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 in 1309 deserted Rome for AvignonAvignon
, city (1990 pop. 86,440), capital of Vaucluse dept., SE France, on the Rhône River. It is a farm market with a wine trade and a great variety of manufactures.
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 and the domination of France. During the so-called Babylonian captivity (1309–78) all the popes were French, all lived at Avignon, and all were under the control of the French kings. The Avignonese papacy represented the culmination of the administrative structure of the church, which reached into almost all corners of Europe.

Pope Gregory XIGregory XI,
1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban V, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1367–70).
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—acting partly on the advice of St. Catherine of SienaCatherine of Siena, Saint
, 1347–80, Italian mystic and diplomat, a member of the third order of the Dominicans, Doctor of the Church. The daughter of Giacomo Benincasa, a Sienese dyer, Catherine from early childhood had mystic visions and practiced austerities; she also
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 and St. Bridget of SwedenBridget of Sweden, Saint,
c.1300–1373, Swedish nun, one of the great saints of Scandinavia. She was a noblewoman at court and the mother of eight children. After her husband's death she founded (1346) the Order of the Most Holy Savior (the Brigettines).
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—moved the papacy back to Rome. But the church was immediately plunged into the disorder of the Great SchismSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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 (1378–1417). There were two or even three rival popes at a time (in later determination of true succession, those claimants ruled out of the succession are called antipopes). The schism ended in the Council of Constance (see Constance, Council ofConstance, Council of,
1414–18, council of the Roman Catholic Church, some of its sessions being reckoned as the 16th ecumenical council. It was summoned to end the Great Schism (see Schism, Great), in which three men were claiming to be pope—Gregory XII (since
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). Since then, apart from the abortive revolt at the Council of Basel (see Basel, Council ofBasel, Council of,
1431–49, first part of the 17th ecumenical council in the Roman Catholic Church. It is generally considered to have been ecumenical until it fell into heresy in 1437; after that it is regarded as an anticouncil.
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), there has been no schism in the papacy.

Subsequently, the pope had little real power outside Italy, and no 15th-century pope was prepared to attempt serious reform, which would have required challenging the vested interests of bishops, cardinals, and princes. Indeed, in the 15th cent. the papal court made Rome a brilliant Renaissance capital, enriched by some of the finest art of the West. The Renaissance popes, however, were little distinguished from other princes in the extravagance and immorality of their courts.

In the Reformation

Papal corruption during the Renaissance provided the background for the Protestant ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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 and alienated many followers of the established church. Martin LutherLuther, Martin,
1483–1546, German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. Early Life and Spiritual Crisis

Luther was educated at the cathedral school at Eisenach and at the Univ.
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 and his colleagues entered upon a basic theological revolution, reacting in part to the state of the papacy. They denounced the whole accepted view of God's relation to humanity and began a movement that split the Western Church.

Although reformation within the church began in the 1520s, papal involvement did not begin until the election (1534) of Paul IIIPaul III,
1468–1549, pope (1534–49), a Roman named Alessandro Farnese; successor of Clement VII. He was created cardinal by Alexander VI, and his influence increased steadily.
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 (see Counter ReformationCounter Reformation,
16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present
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). The Council of Trent (1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63; see Trent, Council ofTrent, Council of,
1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation.
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) undertook to lay out the new definitions and regulations that reconstructed the church, including the papacy. The other major work of the 16th-century popes was the new development of foreign missions, which, as in ancient times, enhanced papal prestige. Of the several orders concerned with reform and missions, the Jesuits (see Jesus, Society ofJesus, Society of,
religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. Its members are called Jesuits. St. Ignatius of Loyola, its founder, named it Compañia de Jesús [Span.,=(military) company of Jesus]; in Latin it is Societas Jesu (abbr. S.J.).
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) were the best known. The 16th cent. also saw the stabilization of the Papal States as they would remain until the 19th cent.

In the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

After the Counter Reformation, the papacy continued to be plagued by another problem, one that reform had (of necessity) left untouched. This was the position in the church of the rulers of largely Roman Catholic states. Once one of these Catholic princes, whether devout or notoriously immoral, was sure of his power, he determined to include the church within it (e.g., insisting on the deciding voice in selecting the clergy). The kings of Spain even conducted their own InquisitionInquisition
, tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church established for the investigation of heresy. The Medieval Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages investigation of heresy was a duty of the bishops.
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. It was accepted that Catholic rulers should hold a veto in papal elections.

By the 18th cent. every Catholic prince was at odds with the papacy. Spain had the longest record of this sort, lasting into the 20th cent. In France the triumphant Bourbons developed GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 as a theory to justify their ecclesiastical pretensions; Louis XIVLouis XIV,
1638–1715, king of France (1643–1715), son and successor of King Louis XIII. Early Reign

After his father's death his mother, Anne of Austria, was regent for Louis, but the real power was wielded by Anne's adviser, Cardinal Mazarin.
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 was its chief proponent, but the revolutionists of 1790 used it (in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, banned by Pius VIPius VI,
1717–99, pope (1775–99), an Italian named G. Angelo Braschi, b. Cesena; successor of Clement XIV. He was created cardinal in 1774. Early in his reign he was faced with the attempts of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II to "reform" the church by suppressing
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), and so did Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
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 as soon as he had signed the Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801,
agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reestablished the Roman Catholic Church in France. Napoleon took the initiative in negotiating this agreement; he recognized that reconciliation with the church was politic.
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. Most extreme, and least enduring, were the schemes of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph IIJoseph II,
1741–90, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780–90), son of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, whom he succeeded. He was the first emperor of the house of Hapsburg-Lorraine (see Hapsburg).
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.

In the 18th cent. the papacy seemed doomed; its weakness became a spectacle when Clement XIVClement XIV,
1705–74, pope (1769–74), an Italian (b. near Rimini) named Lorenzo Ganganelli; successor of Clement XIII. He was prominent for many years in pontifical affairs at Rome, and he was created cardinal in 1759. He was a Conventual Franciscan.
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 was forced into suppressing the Jesuits, the only group in the church consistently loyal to the pope. Early in the 19th cent., when Pius VIIPius VII,
1740–1823, pope (1800–1823), an Italian named Barnaba Chiaramonti, b. Cesena; successor of Pius VI, who had created him cardinal in 1785. He conducted himself ably during the period of the French Revolution, showing sympathy for the social aims of the
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 tried to protect the sanctity of the Holy See, Napoleon had him ignominiously imprisoned. After the fall of Napoleon, with the increasing decline of the old absolutist states, the papacy imperceptibly gained. Papal opposition to the reunification of Italy deepened the suspicious dislike of most liberals for the papacy.

The loss (1870) of the Papal States proved in the end a blessing for the papacy, although it took 60 years to solve the Roman Question—the problem of assuring the pope nonnational status in a nationally organized world (see Lateran TreatyLateran Treaty,
concordat between the Holy See and the kingdom of Italy signed in 1929 in the Lateran Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparri for Pius XI and by Benito Mussolini for Victor Emmanuel III. One of the important negotiators was Cardinal Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII.
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). The First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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 enunciated the doctrine of papal infallibility in 1870. In the modern world, the popes no longer faced trouble with Catholic princes but did engage in struggles with secular states over anticlerical or specifically anti-Catholic legislation (e.g., Otto von BismarckBismarck, Otto von
, 1815–98, German statesman, known as the Iron Chancellor. Early Life and Career

Born of an old Brandenburg Junker family, he studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and after holding minor judicial and administrative offices he was elected
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's KulturkampfKulturkampf
[Ger.,=conflict of cultures], the conflict between the German government under Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church. The promulgation (1870) of the dogma of the infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals within the church sparked the conflict; it
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 in Germany and the anticlericalism in France, Portugal, and Mexico) or overt attacks on all religion.

In the Twentieth Century

The popes at the end of the 19th cent. turned more toward pure spiritual and moral leadership in a tangled world. The growth of Catholicism in areas outside Europe tended to make the pope more and more the single unifying force in the church and therefore fundamentally an international figure. A singular succession of dynamic popes strengthened this effect; Leo XIIILeo XIII,
1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IX. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perugia (1846–77), and was created cardinal in 1853.
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, Pius XPius X, Saint,
1835–1914, pope (1903–14), an Italian named Giuseppe Sarto, b. near Treviso; successor of Leo XIII and predecessor of Benedict XV. Ordained in 1858, he became bishop of Mantua (1884), a cardinal (1893), and patriarch of Venice (1893).
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, Benedict XVBenedict XV,
1854–1922, pope (1914–22), an Italian (b. Genoa) named Giacomo della Chiesa; successor of Pius X. He was made archbishop of Bologna in 1907 and cardinal in 1914, two months before his election as pope.
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, Pius XIPius XI,
1857–1939, pope (1922–39), an Italian named Achille Ratti, b. Desio, near Milan; successor of Benedict XV. Prepapal Career

Ratti's father was a silk manufacturer. He studied in Milan and at the Gregorian Univ., Rome, and was ordained in 1879.
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, Pius XIIPius XII,
1876–1958, pope (1939–58), an Italian named Eugenio Pacelli, b. Rome; successor of Pius XI. Ordained a priest in 1899, he entered the Vatican's secretariat of state.
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, John XXIIIJohn XXIII, Saint,
1881–1963, pope (1958–63), an Italian (b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo) named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; successor of Pius XII. He was of peasant stock.
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, Paul VIPaul VI,
1897–1978, pope (1963–78), an Italian (b. Concesio, near Brescia) named Giovanni Battista Montini; successor of John XXIII. Prepapal Career

The son of a prominent newspaper editor, he was ordained in 1920.
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, and John Paul IIJohn Paul II, Saint
1920–2005, pope (1978–2005), a Pole (b. Wadowice) named Karol Józef Wojtyła; successor of John Paul I. He was the first non-Italian pope elected since the Dutch Adrian VI (1522–23) and the first Polish and Slavic pope.
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 all strove to reorient the church in the modern world, to combat secularism, and to extend Roman Catholic morality in social relations. The social encyclical of Leo XIII, Rerum Novarum (1891), was echoed in the encyclical of Pius XI, Quadragesimo Anno (1931); reinforced and restated by John XXIII in Mater et Magistra (1961); reaffirmed once again by Paul VI in Populorum Progressio (1967); and restated several times by John Paul II in Laborem Exercens (1981), Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (1987), and Centessimus Annus (1991, the 100th anniversary of Leo's encyclical). The recommendations made in these encyclicals are international in scope, and the international prestige of the papacy has been increased by its steady advocacy of peace and its aid to the oppressed and destitute of the world.

Politically, the role of the papacy has been more controversial. Pius XII was criticized by some for not condemning more strongly the Nazi regime in Germany (especially in its persecution of the Jews); these critics suggest that he was far more implacably hostile to Communism. The encouragement of greater lay participation in the church itself (e.g., approval of the liturgical movement), fostering of the varied contributions of the parts of the church, desire to unite all Christians, encouragement of the "progressive" renewal within the church itself—all these came to the fore when Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican CouncilVatican Council, Second,
popularly called Vatican II,
1962–65, the 21st ecumenical council (see council, ecumenical) of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope John XXIII and continued under Paul VI.
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. The efforts of the council, under the close direction of John XXIII and Paul VI, to renew the spiritual and organizational life of the church had the paradoxical effect of increasing challenges to papal authority.

The council's stress on the collegiality of bishops and pope in the rule of the universal church led to the establishment of national conferences of bishops, a step that tended to disrupt the direct exercise of papal authority over individual bishops and increase the autonomy of local churches. Following the council there arose discussions among Catholic theologians of the limits of papal jurisdiction and infallibility. Paul VI attempted to uphold the primacy of the papal teaching office in his reassertion, in the encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), of the traditional doctrine prohibiting artificial birth control; his attempt was met with subtle evasion by some of the national conferences of bishops and by open defiance by some priests and theologians.

John Paul IJohn Paul I,
1912–78, pope (1978), an Italian (b. Canale d'Agordo) named Albino Luciani; successor of Paul VI. Born into a poor, working-class family, he trained at local seminaries and at the Gregorian Univ. in Rome.
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 was pope for 34 days in 1978 before his death. The nearly three decade pontificate of his successor, John Paul II (r.1978–2005), was marked by an increased papal presence in the international sphere through extensive travel outside Rome. He also broadened international representation in the College of Cardinals and in the Roman Curia. Although John Paul II worked to implement the mandates of the Second Vatican Council, he firmly and successfully reasserted the primacy and authority of the pope and the Vatican while also convening an unprecedented number of consistories to advise him. The first non-Italian pope since Adrian VIAdrian VI,
1459–1523, pope (1522–23), a Netherlander (b. Utrecht) named Adrian Florensz; successor of Leo X. He taught at Louvain and was tutor of the young prince, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
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 (1522–23), John Paul II was also the first Polish and Slavic pope. He was succeeded in 2005 by Benedict XVIBenedict XVI,
1927–, pope (2005–13) and Roman Catholic theologian, a German (b. Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) named Josef (or Joseph) Alois Ratzinger; successor of John Paul II. He entered the seminary in 1939, but his training was interrupted by World War II.
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, a German who had worked closely with John Paul in the Curia. Benedict XVI largely continued the policies of his predecessor, but surprisingly for a pope who was generally a traditionalist, he broke 600 years of tradition and chose to resign (for reasons of age) in 2013. Benedict's successor, FrancisFrancis,
1936–, pope (2013–), an Argentinian (b. Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants) named Jorge Mario Bergoglio; successor of Benedict XVI. Francis, the first non-European to assume the papacy in more than 1,200 years, is the first pope from the Americas and the
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, an Argentinian, was the first non-European elected in more than 1,000 years as well as the first person from the Americas and the first Jesuit to be elected.

Bibliography

For general works dealing with the papacy, see bibliography under Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic Church,
Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint). Its commonest title in official use is Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.
..... Click the link for more information.
. See also J. B. Bury, A History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (1930, repr. 1964); Geoffrey Barraclough, The Medieval Papacy (1968); Peter Nichols, The Politics of the Vatican (1968); Walter Ullmann, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages (3d ed. 1970); Ludwig von Hertling, Communio: Church and Papacy in Early Christianity (tr. 1972); J. N. D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1986); B. Schimmelpfennig, The Papacy (tr. by James Sievert, 1992); E. Duffy, Saints & Sinners (1997); P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes (1997); P. G. Maxwell-Stuart, Chronicle of the Popes (1997); O. Chadwick, A History of the Popes, 1830–1914 (1998); J. J. Norwich, Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy (2011); E. Duffy, Ten Popes Who Shook the World (2011); G. Posner, God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican (2015).

Papacy

 

the religious monarchical center of the Catholic Church, headed by the pope, who is considered by Catholics to be the successor of the apostle Peter. The pope is elected for life by a conclave. (Since 1389 all the popes have been chosen from among the cardinals, and since 1523 almost every pope has been an Italian.)

The authority of the pope in the church is virtually unlimited. Under a decision adopted by Vatican Council II (1962–65), the college of bishops, which includes the entire Catholic episcopate, participates nominally in the administration of the church, but only jointly with the pope, who is head of the episcopal college. A new church body, the Synod of Bishops, which was established by Pope Paul VI in September 1965, has only consultative and informative functions. It is convened by the pope, who presides over it himself (or through his representatives) and designates the agenda. The pope also convokes the ecumenical councils and confirms their decisions. He appoints the cardinals and bishops. The superiors general of the monastic orders are under his authority. At the same time, he is the absolute ruler of the Vatican, the state where his permanent residence is located. In exercising his sociopolitical and religious authority, the pope relies on the extensive bureaucracy of the Catholic Church and on the religious and secular organizations associated with the church; on the Curia Romana, which is subordinate to him; on the diplomatic representatives of the Vatican; and on the legates, his special personal representatives. Directives addressed by the pope to the entire Catholic Church or to Catholics in particular countries are known as encyclicals. Through the bishops the papacy influences Catholic political parties, Christian trade unions, and Catholic secular organizations.

The papacy developed out of the bishopric of Rome. From the middle of the second century, leadership in the Christian communities gradually passed to the bishops. By the fourth century, the greatest influence had been acquired by the bishops of Rome, who possessed major landholdings and who claimed, as bishops of the capital of the Roman Empire, a special position in the church. The transfer of the capital to Constantinople (A.D. 330), followed by the division of the empire (395) and the overthrow of the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire (476), contributed to the political independence of the Roman episcopate, which was the sole representative of authority in Rome. From the fifth century the bishops of Rome took the title of pope (from the Greek pappas—“father,” “mentor”). Leo I (ruled 440–461) obtained from the Roman emperor a rescript declaring all bishops subordinate to the papal court and giving the pope’s decisions the force of law. In 756, the Donation of Pepin the Short made possible the creation of the Papal States, laying the foundation for the secular authority of the popes, for the justification of which the Donation of Constantine (eighth century) and the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (ninth century) were fabricated. The papacy proved to be dependent on the Frankish kings and later on the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire.

From the 11th through 13th centuries the papacy grew stronger, using the Cluniac reform in its struggle with the Holy Roman emperors over investiture. The Concordat of Worms (1122), which ended the investiture conflict, increased the papacy’s authority over the bishops.

The rise of the papacy was promoted by the Lateran Synod of 1059 in a decree declaring that the popes were to be elected only by the cardinals, without the participation of the rest of the clergy and the secular magnates. The emperor retained only the right to confirm the results of the election. (Previously, the popes, like other bishops, had been chosen by the clergy and the feudal aristocracy. The emperors of the Holy Roman Empire had begun to interfere in papal elections in the tenth century.) The Lateran Synod of 1179 ruled that the votes of at least two-thirds of the participants in a conclave were required for the election of a pope.

Among the most prominent advocates of papal theocracy were Gregory VII (ruled 1073–85), Innocent III (1198–1216), and Boniface VIII (1294–1303), who claimed supremacy over secular sovereigns. The papacy declared itself superior to the church councils. It endeavored to spread Catholicism beyond Western Europe and even tried (unsuccessfully) to convert Rus’. At the end of the 11th century, having broadened its authority, the papacy initiated and organized the Crusades. It fought against antifeudal, heretical popular uprisings. To conduct the struggle against heresies and opponents of church authority, the papacy established the Inquisition in the 13th century. The papacy’s political role in medieval Europe rested on the fact that the Catholic Church was “the great international center of feudalism. … It surrounded feudal institutions with the halo of divine consecration” (F. Engels, in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 22, p. 306).

With the formation of centralized states in Europe, the influence of the papacy declined. Gallicanism, which emerged in 13th-century France, gained independence from the papacy for the French Catholic Church. As a result of its defeat in the struggle with the royal authority in France, the papacy became dependent on the French kings, under whose pressure the papal residence was shifted from Rome to Avignon in the 14th century. The return of the popes to Rome in 1377 did not strengthen the papacy. Among the factors contributing to the decline of papal authority was the Great Western Schism (1378–1417), when two or three popes simultaneously laid claim to the papal throne. (Only one of them is recognized as legitimate by the modern church, which has proclaimed the others antipopes.) The conciliar movement, which emerged among the upper church hierarchy and among representatives of the secular feudal lords, advanced the idea of the supremacy of the church councils over the authority of the popes. Although the supporters of the papacy won the struggle that developed between them and the adherents of the conciliar movement at the Council of Basel (1431–49), the papacy was in fact unable to regain its former importance. As a result of the Reformation (16th century) and the establishment of the Protestant churches, the papacy lost its power in a number of European countries. To some extent, the papacy’s position was reinforced by the Counter-Reformation, and especially by the Council of Trent (1545–63).

With the strengthening of the nation-states in Europe, the papacy had to renounce its claims to political supremacy over the secular sovereigns. It shifted to a policy of supporting the secular authority in the Western European states. Reacting with hostility to the bourgeois revolution, the papacy remained a bulwark for feudal monarchical forces until the mid-19th century. In the second half of the 19th century the papacy began to develop closer ties with reactionary bourgeois circles, with which it shared an interest in the struggle against the labor movement and socialism. In 1864, Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors, in which he denounced democratic freedoms, socialism, and communism and demanded that the pope’s temporal power be preserved. Vatican Council I (1869–70) proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility.

At the end of the 19th century, when class contradictions and the class struggle grew more intense, the papacy began to alter its policies, striving by means of social demagoguery to divert the workers from the revolutionary struggle. The foundation for this course was laid by Leo XIII, whose encyclical Rerum novarum (1891) contained elements of Christian socialism. Although it called for collaboration between labor and capital, Rerum novarum essentially defended as eternal phenomena both private property and the division of society into classes. Leo XIII’s antisocialist program served as the basis for his successors’ policies. The papacy adopted a hostile stance toward the Great October Socialist Revolution and the Soviet state, and in subsequent years its policies were openly anticommunist. In 1929, Pope Pius XI concluded the Lateran Treaty with fascist Italy, providing for the establishment of a papal state, the Vatican. In 1930, Pius XI proclaimed a crusade against the USSR, in 1933 he signed a concordat with Hitlerite Germany, and in 1937 he issued an encyclical against communism. Pope Pius XII welcomed Franco’s victory in Spain in 1939. In 1949 he signed a decree excommunicating Communists.

The Catholic Church is going through a period of crisis, as a result of the change in the world balance of forces in favor of socialism after World War II (1939–45), the development of the national liberation movement, and scientific progress. To strengthen Catholicism, the papacy has decided on a policy of adaptation to modern times in matters of religion, doctrine, and organization, as well as in international politics. The foundation for the papacy’s new course was laid by Pope John XXIII (1958–63). Although he remained an opponent of socialism, he adopted a more realistic position toward the socialist countries than had his predecessors, and he advocated peace, disarmament, and the resolution of controversial international problems through negotiations. These new tendencies have been reflected in the decisions of Vatican Council II (1962–65) and in the policies of Pope Paul VI (elected in 1963).

REFERENCES

Lozinskii, S. G. Istoriia papstva. Moscow, 1961.
Sheinman, M. M. Papstvo. Moscow, 1966.
Sheinman, M. M. Ot Piia IX do Ioanna XXIII. Moscow, 1966.
Zaborov, M. A. Papstvo i krestovye pokhody. Moscow, 1960.
Winter, E. Papstvo i tsarizm. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Hayward, F. Histoire des papes, 3rd ed. Paris, 1953.
Pastor, L. Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, vols. 1–16. [Freiburg] 1955–61.

M. M. SHEINMAN

Table 1. List of popes and antipopes1
1Officially recognized by the Catholic Church- In fact, relatively accurate information about the popes of Rome (until the fifth century, the bishops of Rome) is available only from the third century, and even then there are gaps. The list is from the Annuariopontificio. Vatican City, 1969. 2After Felix II was declared an antipope, the numerical designation of Felix III was changed. 3Actually, Stephen III. His immediate predecessor, Stephen II, who is not included in the official list, was pope for only three days. 4The Annuario pontificio does not include Leo VIII among the popes. He was installed by Otto I. Other sources list Leo VIII as a pope and Benedict V as an antipope.
Peter, the apostle
Linus (67–76)
Anacletus (Cletus) (76–88)
Clement I (88–97)
Evaristus (97–105)
Alexander I (105–115)
Sixtus I (115–125)
Telesphorus (125–136)
Hyginus (136–140)
Pius I (140–155)
Anicetus (155–166)
Soter (166–175)
Eleutherius (175–189)
Victor I (189–199)
Zephryinus (199–217)
Callistus I (217–222)
Hippolytus (217–235), antipope
Urban I (222–230)
Pontian (230–235)
Anterus (235–236)
Fabian (236–250)
Cornelius (251–253)
Novatianus (251-c. 258), antipope
Lucius I (253–254)
Stephen I (254–257)
Sixtus II (257–258)
Dionysius (259–268)
Felix I (269–274)
Eutychian (275–283)
Caius (283–296)
Marcellinus (296–304)
Marcellus I (308–309)
Eusebius (309 or 310)
Miltiades (Melchiades) (311–314)
Sylvester I (314–335)
Marcus (336)
Julius I (337–352)
Liberius (352–366)
Felix II (355–365), antipope
Damasus I (366–384)
Ursinus (366–367), antipope
Siricius (384–399)
Anastasius I (399–401)
Innocent I (401–417)
Zosimus (417–418)
Boniface I (418–422)
Eulalius (418–419), antipope
Celestine I (422–432)
Sixtus III (432–440)
Leo I (440–461)
Hilarius (461–468)
Simplicius (468–483)
Felix III (II)2 (483–492)
Gelasius I (492–496)
Anastasius II (496–498)
Symmachus (498–514)
Lawrence (498, 501–505), antipope
Hormisdas (514–523)
John I (523–526)
Felix IV (III) (526–530)
Boniface II (530–532)
Dioscurus (530), antipope
John II (533–535)
Agapetus I (535–536)
Silverius (536–537)
Vigilius (537–555)
Pelagius I (556–561)
John III (561–574)
Benedict I (575–579)
Pelagius II (579–590)
Gregory I (590–604)
Sabinianus (604–606)
Boniface III (607)
Boniface IV (608–615)
Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615–618)
Boniface V (619–625)
Honorius I (625–638)
Severinus (640)
John IV(640–642)
Theodore I(642–649)
Martin I (649–655)
Eugene I (654–657)
Vitalian (657–672)
Adeodatus II (672–676)
Donus (676–678)
Agatho (678–681)
Leo II (682–683)
Benedict II (684–685)
John V (685–686)
Conon (686–687)
Theodore (687), antipope
Paschal (687), antipope
Sergius I (687–701)
John VI (701–705)
John VII (705–707)
Sisinnius (708)
Constantine (708–715)
Gregory II (715–731)
Gregory III (731–741)
Zachary (741–752)
Stephen II3 (752–757)
Paul I (757–767)
Constantine (767–769), antipope
Philip (768), antipope
Stephen III (IV) (768–772)
Adrian I (772–795)
Leo III (795–816)
Stephen IV (V) (816–817)
Paschal I (817–824)
Eugene II (824–827)
Valentine (827)
Gregory IV (827–844)
John (844), antipope
Sergius II (844–847)
Leo IV (847–855)
Benedict III (855–858)
Anastasius (855), antipope
Nicholas I (858–867)
Adrian II (867–872)
John VIII (872–882)
Marinus I (882–884)
Adrian III (884–885)
Stephen V (VI) (885–891)
Formosus (891–896)
Boniface VI (896)
Stephen VI (VII) (896–897)
Romanus (897)
Theodore II (897)
John IX (898–900)
Benedict IV (900–903)
Leo V (903)
Christopher (903–904), antipope
Sergius III (904–911)
Anastasius III (911–913)
Lando (913–914)
John X (914–928)
Leo VI (928)
Stephen VII (VIII) (928–931)
John XI (931–935)
Leo VII (936–939)
Stephen VIII (IX) (939–942)
Marinus II (942–946)
Agapetus II (946–955)
John XII (955–964)
Leo VIII4 (963–965)
Benedict V4 (964–966)
John XIII (965–972)
Benedict VI (973–974)
Boniface VII (974, 984–985), antipope
Benedict VII (974–983)
John XIV (983–984)
John XV (985–996)
Gregory V (996–999)
John XVI (997–998), antipope
Sylvester II (999–1003)
John XVII (1003)
John XVIII (1004–09)
Sergius IV (1009–12)
Benedict VIII (1012–24)
Gregory (1012), antipope
John XIX (1024–32)
Benedict IX (1032–44)
Sylvester III (1045)
Benedict IX (1045)
Gregory VI (1045–46)
Clement II (1046–47)
Benedict IX (1047–48)
Damasus II (1048)
Leo IX (1049–54)
Victor II (1055–57)
Stephen IX (X) (1057–58)
Benedict X (1058–59), antipope
Nicholas II (1059–61)
Alexander II (1061–73)
Honorius II (1061–72), antipope
Gregory VII (1073–85)
Clement III (1084–1100), antipope
Victor III (1086–87)
Urban II (1088–99)
Paschal II (1099–1118)
Theodoric (1100), antipope
Albert (1102), antipope
Sylvester IV (1105–11), antipope
Gelasius II (1118–19)
Gregory VIII (1118–21), antipope
Callistus II (1119–24)
Honorius II (1124–30)
Celestine II (1124), antipope
Innocent II (1130–43)
Anacletus II (1130–38), antipope
Victor IV (1138), antipope
Celestine II (1143–44)
Lucius II (1144–45)
Eugene III (1145–53)
Anastasius IV (1153–54)
Adrian IV (1154–59)
Alexander III (1159–81)
Victor IV (1159–64), antipope
Paschal III (1164–68), antipope
Callistus III (1168—78), antipope
Innocent III (1179–80), antipope
Lucius III (1181–85)
Urban III (1185–87)
Gregory VIII (1187)
Clement III (1187–91)
Celestine III (1191–98)
Innocent III (1198–1216)
Honorius III (1216–27)
Gregory IX (1227–41)
Celestine IV (1241)
Innocent IV (1243–54)
Alexander IV (1254–61)
Urban IV (1261–64)
Clement IV (1265–68)
Gregory X (1271–76)
Innocent V (1276)
Adrian V (1276)
John XXI (1276–77)
Nicholas III (1277–80)
Martin IV (1281–85)
Honorius IV (1285–87)
Nicholas IV (1288–92)
Celestine V (1294)
Boniface VIII (1294–1303)
Benedict XI (1303–04)
Clement V (1305–14)
John XXII (1316–34)
Nicholas V (1328–30), antipope
Benedict XII (1334–42)
Clement VI (1342–52)
Innocent VI (1352–62)
Urban V (1362–70)
Gregory XI (1370–78)
Urban VI (1378–89)
Clement VII (1378–94), antipope
Boniface IX (1389–1404)
Benedict XIII (1394–1423), antipope
Innocent VII (1404–06)
Gregory XII (1406–15)
Alexander V (1409–10), antipope
John XXIII (1410–15), antipope
Martin V (1417–31)
Eugene IV (1431–47)
Felix V (1439–49), antipope
Nicholas V (1447–55)
Callistus III (1455–58)
Pius II (1458–64)
Paul II (1464–71)
Sixtus IV (1471–84)
Innocent VIII (1484–92)
Alexander VI (1492–1503)
Pius III (1503)
Julius II (1503–13)
Leo X (1513–21)
Adrian VI (1522–23)
Clement VII (1523–34)
Paul III (1534–49)
Julius III (1550–55)
Marcellus II (1555)
Paul IV (1555–59)
Pius IV (1559–65)
Pius V (1566–72)
Gregory XIII (1572–85)
Sixtus V (1585–90)
Urban VII (1590)
Gregory XIV (1590–91)
Innocent IX (1591)
Clement VIII (1592–1605)
Leo XI (1605)
Paul V (1605–21)
Gregory XV (1621–23)
Urban VIII (1623–44)
Innocent X (1644–55)
Alexander VII (1655–67)
Clement IX (1667–69)
Clement X (1670–76)
Innocent XI (1676–89)
Alexander VIII (1689–91)
Innocent XII (1691–1700)
Clement XI (1700–21)
Innocent XIII (1721–24)
Benedict XIII (1724–30)
Clement XII (1730–40)
Benedict XIV (1740–58)
Clement XIII (1758–69)
Clement XIV (1769–74)
Pius VI (1775–99)
Pius VII (1800–23)
Leo XII (1823–29)
Pius VIII (1829–30)
Gregory XVI (1831–46)
Pius IX (1846–78)
Leo XIII (1878–1903)
Pius X (1903–14)
Benedict XV (1914–22)
Pius XI (1922–39)
Pius XII (1939–58)
John XXIII (1958–63)
Paul VI (1963–1978)

papacy

1. the office or term of office of a pope
2. the system of government in the Roman Catholic Church that has the pope as its head
www.wayoflife.org/papacy
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