At the time of hatching, the ventral surface of the pedal ganglion has both a large, about 30 [micro]m in diameter, neuron IR to TPep antibodies and also a cluster of small IR neurons.
ater pedal ganglion at about 50%-60% of development, a 5-HT IR neuron of about 30 [micro]m in diameter sends an axon posteriorly in the pedal sole rim.
To examine the distal axon anatomy of putative sensory neuron homologs and to confirm a sensory-neuron-like response to nerve stimulation, action potentials were elicited with an electrical current (5-10 msec, 10-50 V, capacity coupled, using a stimulus isolation unit) passed through a suction electrode of a diameter appropriate to make a tight seal on the largest posterior-projecting peripheral nerve of the pedal ganglion (most likely homologous to nerve P9 in Aplysia).
V Proximal neuroanatomy [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]: single axon running from the soma in the pleural ganglion to the adjacent pedal ganglion (Walters et al.
It has also been reported that PC neurons send outputs to neurons in the pedal ganglion
, where motor neurons primarily reside (Chase and Tolloczko, 1989).
The motor program was monitored via intracellular recordings from pedal ganglion
swim flexion neurons located near pedal neurons 5 and 6 (Willows et al.
Because pedal ganglion
neurons play a large role in the mediation of locomotory activity in the snail, it is plausible that Lymnaea senses light by the extraocular dermal photoreceptors in the foot during upside-down gliding.
appressa, this paper shows the axon destination of early pedal ganglion
neurons that are 5-HT-LIR.
The right pedal ganglion
(pg) was the second largest ganglion in the CNS, measuring 50-55 [micro]m in diameter in all specimens.
Although 13 statocyst hair cells are located on both sides of the pedal ganglion
in Hermissenda and Lymnaea, their interactions with the photoreceptors are quite different in the two species.
In five preparations, it was estimated that between 10 and 14 pSMNs exist on the dorsal surface of each pedal ganglion
and from 4 to 7 on the ventral surface.
Groups of 6-10 small IR-neurons are seen at the periphery of each pedal ganglion
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 7, 12 OMITTED].