peer


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peer

1. a member of a nobility; nobleman
2. a person who holds any of the five grades of the British nobility: duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron

Peer

 

the title of a representative of the higher nobility in Great Britain and France. The title first appeared in the Middle Ages. In France it was eliminated in 1789 but temporarily revived during the period from 1814 to 1848. In Great Britain the peerage still exists. Peers have the right to membership in the House of Lords.

peer

[pir]
(communications)
A functional unit in a communications system that is in the same protocol layer as another such unit.

peer

(networking)
A unit of communications hardware or software that is on the same protocol layer of a network as another. A common way of viewing a communications link is as two protocol stacks, which are actually connected only at the very lowest (physical) layer, but can be regarded as being connected at each higher layer by virtue of the services provided by the lower layers. Peer-to-peer communication refers to these real or virtual connections between corresponding systems in each layer.

To give a simple example, when two people talk to each other, the lowest layer is the physical layer which concerns the sound pressure waves travelling from mouth to ear (so mouths and ears are peers) the next layer might be the speech and hearing centres in the people's brains and the top layer their cerebellums or minds. Although, barring telepathy, nothing passes directly between the two minds, there is a peer-to-peer communication between them.

peer

On the same level or providing the same function. In networking, a peer is a node that provides the same functionality as another. For example, two desktop PCs in a network are peers. A desktop PC and a server are not peers as they perform different operations. The desktop PC may query the server for business data, but the server does not query the PC for the same data. See peering.
References in periodicals archive ?
The peer review process has changed little from journal to journal for centuries, and Kravchenko was expecting that his most recent paper would get vetted through the same process that put his 80-odd earlier papers into print.
In addition, the state must have mandatory peer review for the state board of accountancy to have access.
Teachers must have the ability to properly train and support students into becoming effective peers for students with disabilities and provide evaluation procedures to assess the effectiveness of peer-mediation for students with disabilities (Greenwood & Delquadri, 1995; Kohler & Strain, 1999).
A key organizational and operational benefit of the peer review was the reviewers' confirmation that some of our key overarching quality control procedures are global better practices (see "How to Do It Better,").
While peer review was originally designed as an educational and remedial program, the landscape has changed to the point where the profession needs to meet marketplace and regulatory demands for disclosure and increased transparency.
There are many companies that provide load balancing services, and there are many others that have data centers in multiple locations, but Peer 1 is exceptional as GLOBAL has been developed to work specifically with the Peer 1 network.
In any given year, as many as 20 mid-career teachers and 600 first-year teachers undergo peer review.
Although peer mediation programs have a considerable amount of face validity, research indicates that bullying and verbal abuse have shown no signs of decreasing over time (Banks, 1997).
Both blacks and whites had strong peer approval for watching television and weak approval for bowling, reading for pleasure, using a computer, collecting stamps/coins, playing a musical instrument, and going to a museum.
While peer supporters cannot provide the level of service professionals can, they still can help considerably.
These horizontal loops represent peer groups -- the mail room, the plant down the road, the computer programmers, employees with less than two years' service, female employees, the sweepers on the second shift or the Haitians whose English is a second language.
However, there are rules of privilege that will protect other classes of documents, such as most peer review records, once a proper basis is established for the claim of privilege.