pellagra


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Related to pellagra: beriberi

pellagra

(pəlăg`rə), deficiency disease due to a lack of niacin (nicotinic acid), one of the components of the B complex vitamins in the diet. Niacin is plentiful in yeast, organ meats, peanuts, and wheat germ. The disease manifests itself in lesions of the skin and mucous membrane, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, neurological derangement, and mental confusion. It is most common in areas where the diet consists mainly of corn, which, unlike other grains, lacks niacin as well as the amino acid tryptophan, which the body uses to synthesize the vitamin. Treatment includes large doses of niacin and the institution of a proper diet to prevent recurrences.

Bibliography

See D. A. Roe, A Plague of Corn: A Social History of Pellagra (1973).

Pellagra

 

avitaminosis caused by a vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) deficiency. It is manifested by disorders of the skin (dermatitis, generally on the face and neck), alimentary canal (ulceration of the lingual and intestinal mucosa and impairment of gastric secretion and motility), and nervous system (polyneuritis). Treatment involves the administration of nicotinic acid, usually combined with other B-complex vitamins, and adherence to a balanced diet, which includes foods rich in the B vitamins (yeast, liver, eggs, beans) and tryptophan (milk), from which vitamin PP is synthesized in the body.

REFERENCE

Efremov, V. Pellagra: Etiologiia, patogenez i klinika. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934.

pellagra

[pə′lag·rə]
(medicine)
A disease caused by nicotinic acid deficiency characterized by skin lesions, inflammation of the soft tissues of the mouth, diarrhea, and central nervous system disorders.

pellagra

Pathol a disease caused by a dietary deficiency of nicotinic acid, characterized by burning or itching often followed by scaling of the skin, inflammation of the mouth, diarrhoea, mental impairment, etc.
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Pellagra and Pellagra psychosis: A study of 757 Insane Egyptian Pellagrins.
Similarly, the diminutive murderer Mink Snopes's poor sharecropper diet of "coarse fatback," "cheap molasses," and "weevilly flour" suggests pellagra (M 349).
Signs of poor nutrition include severe underdevelopment (usually seen in children) and such deficiency illnesses as scurvy, beriberi, pellagra, rickets, and kwashiorkor, among others (l).
However, this 'package' or combination was not adopted in Italy and the dependence of the Italian poor on just maize led to repeated outbreaks of pellagra.
Joseph Goldberger, for example, spent 15 years researching pellagra and used himself as a human subject, eating the diet that caused the symptoms to prove his theory.
Its nutrition education program, communicated through the cooperatives, is credited with eradicating the illness pellagra.
Vasoactive products produced by the tumour can cause carcinoid syndrome, which is characterized by sweating, flushing, wheezing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cardiac valvular fibrosis and pellagra dermatosis.
The Public Health Service joined in the fight against pellagra in 1909, but it wasn't until 1937 that the cause of the disease, a lack of nicotinic acid (niacin), was identified (Etheridge 1972).
10 The differential diagnosis of WE includes intracranial haemorrhage, stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, delirium, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral pathology, meningitis, pellagra, acute alcoholic and drug toxicity.
Differential diagnosis includes epidermolysis bullosa, cystic fibrosis, glucagonoma syndrome, widespread candidiasis, pellagra, seborrheic dermatitis, hypovitaminoses, atopic dermatitis, celiac disease, and congenital periorificial and palmo-plantar keratoderma (3).