This scheme reflected the collaborative effort by a number of leading Swedish penologists
who, together with other Nordic colleagues, had developed a considerable literature on proportionality and its aims in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
By metaphorizing the relation between time and atrocity, the Penologist
elaborated upon the various Chinese traditional penological "techniques" which slew the four dates the Stranger missed - dismemberment (with five carriages), castration, waist-cutting, and head-smashing - but concealed the real events forever.
In the 1880s, the famed penologist
Zebulon Brockway developed a regime for juvenile offenders at his Elmira Reformatory, which explicitly borrowed military ranks, uniforms, and drilling (Osler, 1991; Smith, 1988; Rothman, 1980).
To be sure, several penologists
have recommended resurrecting parole.
As mainstream penologists
lamented the failures of mass imprisonment, the punishment system often reincorporated the ideal of rehabilitation into institutional narratives.
It discusses how Nazism helped institutionalize the correctional framework in Germany during the 20th century and how penologists
created three pathways by sorting convicts based on moralizing social hygiene; the changing East German approaches to rehabilitation; how the German Democratic Republic dealt with sex offenders; how the Federal Republic established a correctional rehabilitation program; and how West Germany attempted to transform sex offenders into patients.
Since Gresham Sykes wrote his pathbreaking work on the society of captives, penologists
have attempted to classify punishment forms according to their inherent harms or pains.
have suggested numerous alternatives and several of them have proven effective.
Epidemiologists will establish medical literature indicating how disease is transmitted in the prison context; penologists
will speak to the viability of providing clean needles in prison, drawing on comparative evidence from other jurisdictions.
In 1970, a group of expert civilian penologists
conducted a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the Army Confinement System (ACS), which consisted of three tiers:
It was Brigadier General Crowder who, after lengthy consultation with sociologists and penologists
, convinced the Army--and the Congress--to create the U.
long ago concluded that this approach does not work, but apparently, OSHA has yet to receive that news.