It would be remarkable were this not to create what penologists
refer to as a "low-trust environment.
Based on these considerations, other known penologists
of that time, have envisaged solutions to pave the way for the social reintegration, desired by all.
News of the mishap further galvanized Wichern's opponents, who now included the entire liberal establishment--the liberal press, important penologists
such as Mittermaier and Holtzendorff, and famous prison directors from Baden and Saxony.
7) At the same conference, Enoch Wines observed that "The principle that imprisonment ought to be continued till reformation has been effected, and if that happy consummation is never attained, then during the prisoner's natural life, has become a conviction with a large number of American penologists
The criminologists and penologists
whom Nekhliudov reads occupy a position in Resurrection similar to that of historians in War and Peace and materialist philosophers in Anna Karenina.
Then in August 1925, the International Penitentiary Congress, a gathering of prison administrators and penologists
from across the world, which took place once every five years, was held in London.
But, when Russian penologists
concerned themselves with library collections and reading, they addressed, sometimes explicitly and almost always exclusively, the general criminal population.
13) However, in the eightieth annual Congress of Correction, which brought penologists
together in 1950, President Truman outlined the new "American way of handling social problems.
Similarly, James Jacobs challenges liberal penologists
to demonstrate that current prison policy
According to some penologists
, criminal penalties contribute to the rehabilitation of the offender.
Until recently, the topic of prison sex has received only scattered attention among sociologists and penologists
at 54 (stating that penologists
developed the reformatories to "shelter and reform young deviants").