A severe rebuttal came from the Boalt Hall Law School penologists
Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins, who argued in a 1988 article published by the National Council of Crime and Delinquency that Zedlewski overstated the net benefit of incarceration by inflating the numerator (crimes per offender and social costs per crime) and deflating the denominator (annual cost of confinement).
A letter posted on the internet by a California prison security officer reflects a view of prisons that is more common than some progressive penologists
would care to admit.
These assets should be developed in executives, justice officers, penologists
, probation officers, social workers, forensic scientists, special case officers, and investigators.
I agree with the Court as to the value and humaneness of liberal use of probation reports as developed by modern penologists
, but, in a capital case, against the unanimous recommendation of a jury, where the report would concededly not have been admissible at the trial, and was not subject to examination by the defendant, I am forced to conclude that the high commands of due process were not obeyed.
441) As prison discipline was reduced to a "managerial" problem, she concludes, "the goal of social justice" envisoned by the new penologists
was "eclipsed by that of institutional stability.
Criminologists and penologists
have argued for years that incarceration has a lasting influence on inmates' social and psychological wellbeing (Toch 1998, 1992).
Yet, the most heated disagreements between contemporary penologists
came between supporters of the Auburn system and the Pennsylvania system.
7) At the same conference, Enoch Wines observed that "The principle that imprisonment ought to be continued till reformation has been effected, and if that happy consummation is never attained, then during the prisoner's natural life, has become a conviction with a large number of American penologists
13) However, in the eightieth annual Congress of Correction, which brought penologists
together in 1950, President Truman outlined the new "American way of handling social problems.
But, when Russian penologists
concerned themselves with library collections and reading, they addressed, sometimes explicitly and almost always exclusively, the general criminal population.