The presented methodology considers the Percent Defective (PD) of quality testing as a probability distribution instead of only using deterministic values.
1--Collect and Analyze the Percent Defective (PD) of various pavement quality characteristics.
The results of quality testing are transformed to Percent Defective (PD) as a quality measure that indicates how far the contractor from the specification limits.
GR] are Percent Defectives for AC, AV, and GR, respectively.
These attributes of learning outcomes or "retentions" are either good or bad--either the student "got it" or "not got it" so percent defective chart applies to the retention effort.
If there is no defective then percent defective is zero.
There are two kinds of attribute control charts (1) those that measure the percent defective in a sample called p-charts and (2) those that count the number of defects are called c-charts.
An examination will reveal that a student might have progressed from example 1 to exam three in a chronological level of improvement by reducing his or her percent defective.
Mandelson (1962) explained a system of sampling plans indexed through Maximum Allowable Percent Defective.
1975, "Maximum Allowable percent defective (MAPD) Single sampling Inspection by Attributes plans", Journal of Quality Technology, 7 (4) pp.