perennial

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perennial,

any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annualannual,
plant that germinates from seed, blossoms, produces seed, and dies within one year. Annuals propagate themselves by seed only, unlike many biennials and perennials. They are thus especially suited to environments that have a short growing season.
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 or a biennialbiennial,
plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter.
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. Botanically, the term perennial applies to both woody and herbaceous plants (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) and thus includes numerous members of the kingdom. In horticulture, however, the term is usually restricted to hardy herbaceous perennials, particularly border plants such as alyssum, chrysanthemum, iris, peony, phlox, pink, and sedum, all of which characteristically die down to the ground each year and survive the winter on food stored in specialized underground stems (corms, rhizomes, and tubers in horticulture; bulbous plants are not considered perennials). Perennials form seeds each year after reaching maturity, but since plants grown from seeds do not normally bloom until the second season (unless forced), most garden perennials are propagated by dividing the rootstocks (see propagation of plantspropagation of plants
is effected in nature chiefly sexually by the seed and the spore, less often by rhizomes and other methods (see reproduction). Vegetative means include cutting, layering, grafting, tissue culture, and division of the roots (see perennial) and of the tubers
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). In fact, division every few years—as well as judicious pruning—is usually necessary to prevent the plant's becoming straggly and weak. Perennials, including the woody perennials, may have a rest period of some duration during their life cycle. In the plant different parts rest at different times and resume growth independently, e.g., the buds of deciduous plants, which form in late summer and remain dormant until spring. Even in tropical areas where plants appear to retain their leaves the year round, some plants lose all their leaves for a brief period and others grow new and drop old leaves on a continuing basis, as do most conifers.

Bibliography

See R. W. Cumming and R. E. Lee, Contemporary Perennials (1960); J. U. Crockett, Perennials (1972); A. M. Armitage, Herbaceous Perennial Plants (1989); R. R. Clausen and N. H. Ekstrom, Perennials for American Gardens (1989); P. J. Harper, Designing with Perennials (991).

perennial

[pə′ren·ē·əl]
(botany)
A plant that lives for an indefinite period, dying back seasonally and producing new growth from a perennating part.

perennial

A plant or shrub whose life cycle is greater than 2 years.

perennial

a woody or herbaceous plant that can continue its growth for at least two years
References in periodicals archive ?
This study aimed to: (i) investigate the responses of perennial ryegrass to different irrigation and nitrogen levels in terms of growth and quality; and (ii) to determine the effects of reduced N fertilizer levels on water use of perennial ryegrass needed to maintain turfgrass visual color and quality under a continuous water supply in a sub- humid climate.
The common similarity for both groups was that both playing surfaces were newly laid with portable squares, although the grass composition for the two surfaces was different (bermudagrass at Suncorp stadium; Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass mix at Camp Nou).
The maintenance level required, fertility needs, and disease susceptibility of perennial ryegrass are medium.
1) to amplify products from endophyte E+ seed or plants from tall rescue (358 bp), Italian ryegrass (364 bp), and perennial ryegrass (370 bp).
Populations under lupin (data not shown) were similar to those under barley; those under perennial ryegrass were similar when mown (data not shown) or grazed, and those under herb ley (data not shown) were similar under ryegrass/white clover.
Bultman and Ganey (1995) showed that fall armyworm performed worse when reared on previously damaged perennial ryegrass that was infected with a fungal endophyte; this did not occur in larvae fed ryegrass lacking fungal infection.
A model soil spiked with 50 g diesel oil kg-1 was incubated over a 90-day period at ambient condition in combination with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.
A no-choice greenhouse test assessed the impact of overseeding 2 bermudagrass cultivars with an endophytic perennial ryegrass on S.
Scientists from Ibers alongside those at the Rothamsted Research site in north Devon, the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen, Lancaster University and the University of Nottingham, managed to cross a hybridised species of grass called perennial ryegrass, which has a high growth rate, with a species called meadow fescue, known for its well-developed root systems and efficient water capture.
It aims to increase the availability of high sugar grasses (HSG) - perennial ryegrass varieties with high levels of water-soluble carbohydrate.
Organic barley, Sudan grass, canola, rapeseed, alfalfa, perennial ryegrass were grown on petri dishes or 14-21 days.
fungi especially in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass particularly during wet seasons of spring and early summer.