peritoneum


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to peritoneum: Parietal peritoneum, Visceral peritoneum

peritoneum

(pĕrətənē`əm), multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum. The portion that covers the internal organs, or viscera, is known as the visceral peritoneum and forms the outer layer (serosa) of most of the intestinal tract. The supportive peritoneum forms a double sheet of greatly modified membrane called the mesentery. This tissues hold the organs of the digestive tract in position and convey nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic ducts to the viscera. The space between the visceral and parietal membranes contains a watery fluid that permits the abdominal organs to slide freely against the abdominal wall. A ruptured appendix can lead to inflammation of the peritoneum, a condition known as peritonitis.

Peritoneum

 

a thin, semitransparent membrane with a smooth, shiny surface that lines the interior wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the organs inside it in vertebrate animals and humans.

In the normal state, the cavity between the parietal and visceral peritoneums is filled with serous fluid, which facilitates the shifting of organs in relation to each other and the abdominal wall. The total area of the peritoneum in an adult human is approximately 1.6-2.04 sq m (16,000-20,400 sq cm), and its thickness is 0.7-1.1 mm. The outer layer of the peritoneum is formed of mesothelium, and its base is composed of fibrous connective tissue. The peritoneum that covers internal organs (visceral peritoneum) is compactly knitted with them; the peritoneum covering the abdominal wall (parietal peritoneum) is united with underlying parts by an interlayer of loose connective tissue or subperitoneal fatty tissue. The diaphragmatic peritoneum lacks such an interlayer. The peritoneum is abundantly supplied with blood and lymph vessels and nerves.

Covering the wall of the abdominal cavity and the organs inside it, the peritoneum forms a system of slitlike spaces— the peritoneal cavity, which is completely closed in men and which communicates with the external environment through the opening of the Fallopian tube in women. Going from organ to organ and from organ to the wall of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum forms ligaments, mesenteries, omenta, pouches, pits, and folds. Internal organs may penetrate through depressions in the transperitoneal space, forming hernias. Internal organs may be covered with peritoneum on all sides (intraperitoneally), on three sides (mesoperitoneally), or on only one side (extraperitoneally). Depending on the disposition of blood and lymph vessels, sections of peritoneum that primarily absorb or secrete serous fluid are distinguished; this conditions the circulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. In some sections of the peritoneum (on the diaphragm, in the pelvic cavity, and other sections) are located special apparatus, so-called pipes of the peritoneum, which assure especially intensive absorption of fluids. Of diseases of the peritoneum, the most dangerous is its inflammation—peritonitis.

IU. I. DENISOV-NIKOL’SKII

peritoneum

[‚per·ə·tə′nē·əm]
(anatomy)
The serous membrane enveloping the abdominal viscera and lining the abdominal cavity.

peritoneum

a thin translucent serous sac that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers most of the viscera
References in periodicals archive ?
Potential pathways for air into peritoneum * Direct passage through pleural and diaphragmatic defects * Passage via the mediastinum along perivascular connective tissue to the retroperitoneum and finally to the peritoneum (pneumotosis intestinalis coli) * Microperforations in the diaphragm that represent natural microscopic passageways Table 3.
During an exchange, dialysis fluid that was flowed into the abdomen four to six hours earlier is drained out of the peritoneum through a catheter in the abdominal wall.
Leakage of meconium into the peritoneum causes meconium peritonitis (MP).
One hour after the shock-inducing procedures, researchers injected enzyme blockers into the small intestine of some rats and into the peritoneum of others.
London, February 15 ( ANI ): Many women with low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum have seen their tumors stabilize or shrink after taking a regular dose of the compound selumetinib, researchers at the University of Arizona Cancer Center at St.
pestis (6), we obtained DNA from the dissected peritoneum of a black laboratory rat (Rattus rattus), which tested positive for the pla gene.
Others can be performed without an additional port, but may or may not provide direct visualization when securing the abdominal wall fascia and peritoneum.
The process would involve extracting stem cells from the donor's bone marrow and injecting them into the peritoneum of a sheep's fetus.
After performing the tests and CT scan, we found some secretions in peritoneum ( abdominal cavity).
Complications include rupture into the biliary tree, peritoneum and chest, secondary infection, anaphylactic shock and sepsis.
The peritoneum between sacrum and posterior vaginal wall was exposed, allowing prolene mesh to be attached to the vaginal wall with prolene and vinyl sutures.
Primary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP) originates from the serosal surface, supposedly from the embryonic nests of Mullerian cells.