personality theory

Personality theory

A branch of psychology concerned with developing a scientifically defensible model or view of human nature—in the modern parlance, a general theory of behavior.

Most personality theories can be classified in terms of two broad categories, depending on their underlying assumptions about human nature. On the one hand, there are a group of theories that see human nature as fixed, unchanging, deeply perverse, and self-defeating. These theories emphasize self-understanding and resignation; in the cases of Freudian psychoanalysis and existentialism, they also reflect a distinctly tragic view of life—the sources of human misery are so various that the best that can be hoped for is to control some of the causes of suffering. On the other hand, there are a group of theories that see human nature as plastic, flexible, and always capable of growth, change, and development. Human nature is basically benevolent; therefore bad societies are the source of personal misery. Social reform will produce human happiness if not actual perfection. These theories emphasize self-expression and self-actualization—in the cases of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, they reflect a distinctly optimistic and romantic view of life.

personality theory

[pər·sə′nal·əd·ē ‚thē·ə·rē]
(psychology)
A branch of psychology concerned with developing a scientifically defensible model or view of human nature.
References in periodicals archive ?
Personality theory is not a mere academic or theoretical interest, personality theories are the basis for clinical training programs with orientations other than that of the cognitive behavioral or behavioral paradigm.
It is the only construct of personality disorganization to date that is fully integrated with African-centered personality theory, and through that the psychological misorientation construct achieves a preeminent status to other extant conceptualizations of an ADP's distance and/or alienation from his or her own racial or ethnic group.
He helped "resurrect" personality theory in the 1980s and '90s and has made a major contribution to understanding leadership derailment.
The application's predictions are based around the Big Five personality traits: the leading personality theory in modern psychology.
She ends with discussion of Carl Jung's personality theory and neuroscience and how they can inform understanding of teaching and learning and serve as a framework for polarity thinking.
Readers get an abbreviated tour of personality theory beginning with Hippocrates' four temperaments and rapidly proceeding to Cattell's sweet 16, the Big Five, and the final four factor model from Robert Hare's revision of the well-known Hare Psychopathy Checklist.
The MBTI, which is based on Jungian personality theory, uses a series of questions, refined through research, to identify an individual's communication style among four categories: 1) extrovert or introvert, 2) sensing or intuitive, 3) thinker or feeler and 4) judger or perceiver.
By integrating human life history theory, personality theory, and gene-culture co-evolution, we can now create a continuous explanatory sequence that leads from elementary causal principles in biology through human universals to individual human lives and works of imagination.
In 1942, Briggs and Myers began their first development in Jung's personality theory and they made widespread revision during the decades.
In response to Paul Vitz's evaluation of three divisions of psychology as: a) neuroscience and cognitive science; b) tests and measurements; c) psychotherapy and personality theory, I offer four reflections: First; neuroscience and cognitive science and the kind of activity that has gone into the production of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual are shot through with contestable assumptions of a generally philosophical kind, at least as neuroscience and tests and measurements are often practiced.
It should be noted that the theoretical framework for our research is implicit personality theory (Shweder, 1975; Mischel, 1975), and a naturalistic personality description approach.
This article discusses the benefits of these skills within technical education and demonstrates how personality theory relates to critical thinking and creativity.