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pharming(fär`mĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
..... Click the link for more information. , they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.
Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
..... Click the link for more information. . A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.
pharmingSetting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into DNS servers and changing IP addresses (see DNS hijacking), users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored.
For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could just collect usernames and passwords, or it could allow access to the site and, using some pretense, request financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use e-mail to make people go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are going to the site on their own and are certainly not suspicious because the pages look familiar. See phishing and DNS hijacking.