pharming


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pharming

(fär`mĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.

Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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. A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.

pharming

Setting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into DNS servers and changing IP addresses (see DNS hijacking), users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored.

For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could just collect usernames and passwords, or it could allow access to the site and, using some pretense, request financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use e-mail to make people go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are going to the site on their own and are certainly not suspicious because the pages look familiar. See phishing and DNS hijacking.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bruno Giannetti, COO of Pharming, said: "The approval from the EMA to manufacture Ruconest at the Sanofi Aramon (France) site is an important development for Pharming as it will allow us to scale up manufacturing of Ruconest ahead of future market demand, particularly as we progress towards US approval of Ruconest with our partner, Santarus.
The acquisition by Pharming allows for an expanded and accelerated program to bring these products to market.
Pharming is developing innovative protein therapeutics for unmet medical needs.
All forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement and neither Santarus nor Pharming undertakes any obligation to revise or update this news release to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof.
In 2005, Pharming established a partnership with Diosynth for the commercial production of rhC1INH.
Pharming focuses on the development, production and commercialization of human therapeutic proteins to be used in highly innovative therapies.
Pharming attacks are disproportionably underreported in the media.
Contacts: Pharming Group NV Sijmen de Vries Chief Executive Officer +31-71-5247400 Julia Phillips/ Victoria Foster Mitchell FTI Consulting +44-203-727-1136
Pharming has the option to draw from the working capital facility in tranches, in exchange for ordinary shares in the capital of the Company, with the timing and the amount of any tranche determined by Pharming.
Pharming is also eligible to receive up to US $10 million in milestone payments based on the achievement of Food and Drug Administration approval and the commercial launch of rhC1INH in the US.
On March 28, 2007, the Nebraska Independent Community Bankers Association (NCIB) is teaming up with Goldleaf Financial Solutions and Catbird Security for an on-line seminar covering the growing risk of Web site pharming.
LEIDEN, The Netherlands, July 12 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Pharming Group N.