photoionization


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Photoionization

The ejection of one or more electrons from an atom, molecule, or positive ion following the absorption of one or more photons. The process of electron ejection from matter following the absorption of electromagnetic radiation has been under investigation for over a century. The earliest measurements involved the ultraviolet irradiation of metal surfaces. The theoretical interpretation of this phenomenon, known as the photoelectric effect, played an important role in establishing quantum mechanics. It was shown that, contrary to classical ideas, energy exchanges between radiation and matter are mediated by integral numbers of photons. In the gas phase the photoeffect is called either photoionization (atoms, molecules, and their positive ions) or photodetachment (atomic and molecular negative ions). See Photoemission

Photoionization involves a radiative bound-free transition from an initial state consisting of n photons and an atom, molecule, or ion in a bound state to a final continuum state consisting of a residual ion (or an atom in the case of photodetachment) and m free electrons; that is,

In the simplest atomic photoionization process a single electron is ejected from an atom following the absorption of a single photon. Each mode of fragmentation defines a final-state channel that is characterized by the energy and angular momentum of the outgoing electron as well as the excitation state of the residual ion. Since the photoionization process is endoergic, each channel has a well-defined threshold energy below which the channel is energetically closed. The threshold photon energy for a particular channel is equal to the binding energy of the electron that is to be ejected plus the excitation energy, if any, of the residual ion.

Above threshold, the energy carried off by the outgoing electron represents the balance between the energy supplied by the photon and the binding energy of the electron plus the excitation energy of the residual ion (neglecting the small recoil of the heavy ion). A photoelectron spectrum is characterized by a discrete set of peaks, each peak being associated with a particular state of the residual ion. Information on the excitation state of the ion following photoionization can also be obtained by monitoring the fluorescence emitted in the subsequent radiative decay of the state. One of the earliest applications of photoionization measurements was the investigation of the structure of atoms by determining the binding energies of both outer- and inner-shell electrons by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. See Atomic structure and spectra

photoionization

(foh-toh-ÿ-ŏ-ni-zay -shŏn) The ionization of an atom or molecule by photons of electromagnetic radiation. A photon can only remove an electron if the photon energy exceeds the first ionization potential of the atom or molecule. The excess energy is shared between the electron and the ion so that the electron can leave the atom with considerable velocity. If the radiation is of sufficiently high energy more strongly bound electrons will be removed, leaving the resulting ion in an excited state. See also recombination line emission.

photoionization

[¦fōd·ō‚ī·ə·nə′zā·shən]
(physical chemistry)
The removal of one or more electrons from an atom or molecule by absorption of a photon of visible or ultraviolet light. Also known as atomic photoelectric effect.
References in periodicals archive ?
The company was known for innovative, competitive and well-designed products such as the SnapShot hand-held GC, the Voyager GC, and its hand-held photoionization detectors.
A component of the measurement system is a photoionization detector (PID).
molecular ion of 17OHP was highest with atmospheric pressure photoionization (toluene was used as a dopant) followed by APCI and ESL The [[M+H].
We studied the ionization efficiency of nonderivatized Te in positive-ion mode with mobile phases containing various solvents and buffers with electrospray ionization (ESI), heated nebulizer [atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)], and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources on an API 3000 tandem mass spectrometer.
NIST has made available on the Web a database containing photoionization efficiency, vibrational branching ratios, and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of [CO.
Photodegradation can occur through any of the following mechanisms: fragmentation into free radicals or neutral molecules, rearrangement and isomerization reactions, photoreduction, dimerization and other addition reactions, photoionization, and electron transfer (12).
Agilent Technologies announced that it will become the first major LC/MS vendor to offer atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) on its quadrupole (LC/MSD) and ion trap (LC/MSD trap) systems.
At an even faster time scale, studies of the decay of electronically excited and ionized states - involving inner and valence-shell electronic levels - is providing new insights into photoionization dynamics on a femto to picosecond time scale.
Contract award: mass spectrometry with photoionization time of flight.
o]/h is the rate at which the excited vJ' level produces observable products, in this case, the photoionization rate by the second laser.
Syagen Technology's Radiance Pro Qit-ToF Mass Spectromete is a high-throughput molecular analyzer for the biotech industry, based around quadrupole-ion trap-ToF mass spectrometry with a photoionization source.
The PAS response is related to particle size, surface coverage, photoionization potential, molecular structure, and geometry of specific PAHs (12,16).