The frequency distribution of the zero point energy is then reconsidered in Section 5, the cosmic equilibrium of a zero point energy photon gas is elaborated in Section 6, and the acceleration of the expansion is estimated in Section 7.
In the limiting case T = 0 of a pure zero point energy photon gas, one would thus have to study an ensemble of continuous states, to search for the most probable distribution of frequency among the oscillators at a given total and finite energy per unit volume.
6 Equilibrium of a photon gas in its gravitational field
In a gas cloud of photons of zero point energy, there is an antigravity force due to the photon gas pressure gradient, and a gravitation force due to the intrinsic mass of the same photons as determined by the total energy according to Einstein's mass-energy relation.
2] of each photon, the integrated mass of the photon gas within the radius r becomes
In some respects the present analysis also applies to the equilibrium of a photon gas in the regime of Planck's radiation law at nonzero temperature;
In a rigorous dynamical approach the question would arise whether the photon gas cloud can be considered as a closed system or not, i.
Provided that there is not an excessively large average frequency P as compared to the frequency range in the experiments by Lamoreaux, and that the form (11) holds true, the linear dimensions of the present photon gas model should thus be consistent with cosmical dimensions.