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The prediction of personality functioning from facial appearances and expression.



in the science of antiquity and of certain later periods, the study of the direct connection between the outward appearance and character of a person or an animal.

Physiognomy is rooted in the ancient practice of incorporating experience of life into folklore and the lore of sorcerers, fortune tellers, and the like. Physiognomic observations became part of the cultures of the ancient East; in the classical era they were systematized in the same way as other scientific disciplines of the time. Proportions of the face and body, characteristic gestures and facial expressions, and types of posture, build, and carriage of the body were described and classified.

In antiquity physiognomy was associated with the theory of temperaments and with Hippocrates’ theory of the dependence of an individual’s or a people’s physical and mental makeup on climate. Physiognomy was also related to the system of moral types (“characters”) worked out by Theophrastus and other students of Aristotle and to the use of types in classical literature, as exemplified by the character masks in New Comedy and the techniques of verbal portraiture in classical rhetoric, historiography, and biography.

Physiognomy was based on the notion prevalent in antiquity that the actions and behavior of every person are rigidly determined by his inborn character. According to Heraclitus, a person’s character was his “demon,” that is, his fate; similar statements were made by Epicharmus, Democritus, and Plato. It was believed that every person’s association with a moral type was just as clear and obvious, just as tangible and biological, as his physical features.

The classical tradition of physiognomy was reflected in the culture of Byzantium and of medieval Western Europe; it had a particularly strong influence on Arab science and on the cabala of Jewish mysticism. Some Western European scientists, for example, G. della Porta in De humana physiognomonia (1586), resumed the study of physiognomy between the 16th and 18th centuries. However, the establishment of new scientific criteria in the 17th and 18th centuries relegated physiognomy to the realms of common sense and artistic intuition. In his Physiognomical Fragments (1775–78), J. K. Lavater failed in an attempt to restore physiognomy to the status of a science. Similar attempts by such epigones of German romanticism as R. Kassner and L. Klages also failed to achieve acceptance. Klages’ graphology and characterology may be mentioned in this connection.


Scriptores physiognomonici graeci et latini, vols. 1–2. Edited by R. Foerster. Leipzig, 1893.
Evans, E. C. Physiognomies in the Ancient World. Philadelphia, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
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17) if a physiognomist were well-trained, he or she could read Gardiner's character and his behavior might be predicted.
Physiognomists know that the most important way to read a face is to look for what is physically most extreme, because it corresponds to very extreme inner significance.
For the physiognomist knows the character and intentions, so to say, of all people, as if by a god-sent and unmistakable prophecy.
Seeking for correspondences between body and character, Classical and Renaissance physiognomists insisted that the nature of man, through the humors, is written on his face.
89, Charpin), sham men whose show of ruggedness could fool even the expert in the audience, the physiognomist who made it his business to diagnose a [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (soft, that is, unmanly) man.
See how you shape with our body guide by palmist Bettina Luxon and physiognomist Naomi Tickle.
Johann Casper Lavater, a well-known physiognomist of Austen's day, delineated detailed claims about how specific features of the head, face and overall body type directly communicate a person's character and disposition.
Polemon was a skilled physiognomist, who read the looks and actions of others as reliable signs of innate character in his own ostentatious act as a virtuous arbiter of the social good.
As a youth he was told by a physiognomist that, once punished, he would eventually become king.
We asked Naomi Tickle, a leading physiognomist and author of a best selling book on face reading to analyse Mr Blair's smile.
Studies by physiognomist Alfred Linney of the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College, London, observed that the Cassandra and Clarke portraits show women with similar hairstyles and face shapes.