plant breeding


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plant breeding,

science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Other goals are adaptation of crops to modern production techniques such as mechanical harvesting and improvement in the market quality of the product.

Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods, creating desirable hybridshybrid
, term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see genetics).
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; breeders also now attempt to induce favorable genetic mutationsmutation,
in biology, a sudden, random change in a gene, or unit of hereditary material, that can alter an inheritable characteristic. Most mutations are not beneficial, since any change in the delicate balance of an organism having a high level of adaptation to its environment
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 by the use of ultraviolet light, gamma radiation, or chemicals. With the development of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, plant breeders have increasingly used its techniques to introduce desirable traits (i.e., genes), often from other species, into cultivated plants.

See also breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Renowned international scientists namely Director Pre Breeding Dr Jacob Lage, Research Scientist Dr Nick Bird, Global Wheat Breeding Lead Dr Chris Tapsell, Prof Dr Richard from Australia, Prof Dr Khuda-E-Bargi (Uzbekistan), Director Pulses Research Institute Faisalabad Mohammad Rafique, Chairman Plant Breeding and Genetics Prof Dr Zulifqar Ali, Dean Faculty of Social Sciences, Prof Leader Pulses National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad Dr Shahid Riaz and others delivered lectures on the importance of food.
The organization is working to advance plant breeding and agronomic training in Africa for improving crops and nutrition.
The conference was organized by Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) of PMAS-AAUR with an aim to discuss the challenge posed by climate change, new scenario in crop production and revise strategies to tackle them through plant breeding approaches.
in 1978, both in plant breeding and cytogenetics from ISU.
Hundreds of farmers have visited Abundant Bloomsdale' spinach fields to learn about on-farm plant breeding and organic seed production over the course of the project.
Ashoka 200F was developed for resource-poor farmers, using a new method of plant breeding.
Tobias Kretzschmar, head of the Genotyping Services Laboratory of the Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology Division of IRRI.
A native of northeast Arkansas, he earned his bachelor's degree in agriculture and master's degree in plant breeding from the UA and a doctoral degree in genetics from Texas A&M University.
THE lucky discovery of fourleaf and even five-leaf clovers in the sub-arctic could prove valuable to future plant breeding research.
Brown, Caligari, and Campos present readers with a deeper and more contemporary overview of plant breeding and propagation based on Brown and CaligariAEs 2008 text An Introduction to Plant Breeding.
I talked to Gepts about the broader implications of innovative plant breeding technologies, from the lab to the soil.