plant breeding

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plant breeding,

science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Other goals are adaptation of crops to modern production techniques such as mechanical harvesting and improvement in the market quality of the product.

Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods, creating desirable hybridshybrid
, term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see genetics).
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; breeders also now attempt to induce favorable genetic mutationsmutation,
in biology, a sudden, random change in a gene, or unit of hereditary material, that can alter an inheritable characteristic. Most mutations are not beneficial, since any change in the delicate balance of an organism having a high level of adaptation to its environment
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 by the use of ultraviolet light, gamma radiation, or chemicals. With the development of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, plant breeders have increasingly used its techniques to introduce desirable traits (i.e., genes), often from other species, into cultivated plants.

See also breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The advances in plant breeding made possible by these Bosch solutions will play an important part in helping to feed the constantly growing global population.
A native of northeast Arkansas, he earned his bachelor's degree in agriculture and master's degree in plant breeding from the UA and a doctoral degree in genetics from Texas A&M University.
THE lucky discovery of fourleaf and even five-leaf clovers in the sub-arctic could prove valuable to future plant breeding research.
In fact, amending the Plant Breeders' Rights Act encourages increased investment in plant breeding, giving Canadian farmers more access to new and innovative plant varieties and allowing them to be more competitive in the global marketplace.
By supporting academic study, we can help ensure that the field of plant breeding will always have the human talent needed to make new discoveries," said Dr.
Data from the National Plant Breeding Study, which was funded by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) of the U.
He began his career in plant breeding and molecular biology at Sandoz, and subsequently managed plant breeding, genetics and biotechnology programs at Novartis.
Crosbie's early career was spent as a plant breeding graduate faculty member in Iowa State University's Agronomy Department.
titled "Application of genomics in plant breeding" organised by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) UAF, here on
He was addressing the concluding session of a handson training titled "Application of genomics in plant breeding" organised by the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) UAF, here on Saturday.
A PIONEERING method of plant breeding which was developed in Bangor and has improved the lives of millions of people is being shown at an exhibition on the importance of university research.
In this reference on cultivar improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock crops, US and UK contributors explain techniques of plant breeding for crops that will be used as fuel.