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the highest administrator in many city-communes in Italy from the 12th to the early 16th century; head of the executive and the judiciary. A podesta was elected for a term of six months to one year and was usually a citizen of another city. During the second half of the 12th century, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa appropriated the right to appoint the podesta, making the podesta a representative of imperial power. After the battle of Legnano in 1176, however, the cities again secured the right to elect the podesta.

In the mid-13th century, the successful struggle of the popolani (townspeople) against the nòbili (noblemen residing in the city) led to a weakening of the podesta’s power and a strengthening of the capitani del popolo (commune heads) in Bologna, Florence, and many other cities. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the podesta retained only judicial functions and in the early 16th century was replaced by a board of judges. In Venice, Genoa, Florence, and other large medieval Italian city-states, the rulers of cities were also called podestas in the areas they controlled; they were appointed by the central government.

In 1926 a supreme administrative position called podesta was introduced in the cities of Fascist Italy, with appointments made by the government. After the Fascist regime collapsed, the position was abolished (January 1946).


References in periodicals archive ?
Lobbying disclosures reviewed by IBT show that Podesta Group has continuously lobbied for Lockheed Martin since 1999.
No one in his or her right mind would place Podesta or Weber in a plot to help Russia put Trump in the White House.
Continue reading "Did Tony Podesta and Paul Manafort Know They Were Taking Dirty Money in Ukraine?
Podesta's brother, John Podesta, was Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign chairman, and led President Obama's transition team and served as President Bill Clinton's chief of staff, says the report.
Ironically, Tony Podesta's, brother John Podesta, was Hillary Clinton's 2016 campaign chairman and the primary victim of the Russian email hacks last year.
Podesta has revealed how the Russian linked hacker was successful in intruding into his computer and lapses by the IT department of not sharing FBI concerns with the DNC's senior leadership
Last week, Grassley raised similar questions about Manafort and business associate Rick Gates, as well as lobbying firms the Podesta Group and Mercury LLC, following news reports that Manafort and Gates hired the firms to lobby the U.
Podesta said Clinton's base of support among minority voters and the large number of early votes cast will lead to a win for her.
Comey's letter was "long on innuendo, short on facts," Podesta said on CNN's "State of the Union" program, and accused the FBI chief of breaking precedent by disclosing aspects of an investigation so close to the election.
Campaign chairman John Podesta said the FBI was investigating Russia's possible role in hacking thousands of his personal emails, an intrusion he said Mr Trump's campaign may have been aware of in advance.
Podesta also has a boutique private practice where she works with an integrated team that includes a nutritionist, massage therapists, acupuncturist and psychotherapists.
Saudi Arabia hires Edelman, the biggest public relations agency in the world, and the Podesta Group, one of the US's biggest lobbying groups, the Intercept website reported in October last year, citing public documents.