A sometimes overlooked life stage present in some medusozoans is the podocyst, a resting stage produced by polyps.
Additionally, for all putative Alatina species, polyps can revert to a resting podocyst stage under adverse conditions (Carrette et al.
2, c-e) with a morphology different from previously reported encysted life stages in box jellyfish, such as podocysts, which are sessile, encysted polyps (see Carrette et al.
Fine structure, histochemistry, and morphogenesis during excystment of the podocysts of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).
A podocyst is an encapsulated dormant stage produced beneath the pedal disc of the polyps of many rhizostome and semaeostome jellyfish species (Arai, 2009).
The podocyst of Nemopilema nomurai is a dome-like capsule with a slightly concave roof and roughly oval base, in which a cell mass is encapsulated (Fig.
The bottom cuticle undulates and has rivets projecting up into the inside of the podocyst (Fig.
Nematocysts are the cellular organelles used for capture of prey when podocysts become polyps (Lesh-Laurie and Suchy, 1991; Kass-Simon and Scappaticci, 2002), and are therefore unnecessary during podocyst dormancy.
2008), indicating that the podocyst cell mass develops through a planula-like form before metamorphosis into a polyp.
Activation of the dormant podocyst of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Scyphozoa) by removal of the cyst covering, J.
Asexual proliferation by side budding, stolon budding, or podocyst
These include the larval kidneys of many prosobranch species (Rivest, 1992), the "pedal cell complex" of neritoideans (Rivest and Strathmann, 1995), and the podocyst
of some pulmonates (Cather and Tompa, 1972), all of which assimilate protein via receptor-mediated endocytosis (Cather and Tompa, 1972; Rivest, 1981, 1992; Rivest and Strathmann, 1995).