Medicinal plant name Isolated compounds (structures are shown in Figure 1) Taxus baccata Cabazitaxel Colchium autumnale Colchicine (autumn crocus) Combretum caffrum Combretastatin Taxus species Docetaxol Glycyrrhiza uralensis Isoliquiritigenin Needles of yew trees Larotaxel Taxus baccata Podophyllum peltatum Podophyllotoxin
Podophyllum emodi Taxus brevifolia Paclitaxel Polygonum roots, Peanut Resveratrol seeds, Berries and grapes Broussonetia papyrifera 2S-abyssinone II Verubulin Catharanthus roseus Vinblastine G.
is a non-alkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species which is again an antitumor agent (57-59).
Synthesis of nitrogen derivatives from podophyllotoxin
Effect of major nutrients on podophyllotoxin
production in Podophyllum hexandrum suspension cultures.
Effects on bone marrow cells of oral treatment with podophyllotoxin
derivatives in rheumatoid arthritis.
Topical treatments include 10-20% potassium hydroxide, cryotherapy (applying liquid nitrogen for 6-9 seconds), trichloroacetic acid (35-100%), topical tretinoin and imiquimod, podophyllotoxin
(20-25%), potassium hydrochloric solution (10-30% solution) or silver nitrate (40%).
Some of the useful plant drugs include vinblastine, vincristine, Taxol, Podophyllotoxin
, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, tubocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, Pilocarpine, capsicum, Ellison, curcumin, artemesinin and ephedrine among others.
Jackson and Dewick (1984), for example, found that the content of podophyllotoxin
, which is isolated from podophyllin (a resin produced by species of the genus Podophyllum, commonly known as 'may-apple'), is much higher (4.
These are semi-synthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin
, which is an extract from the mandrake plant.
Cytotoxic Plants--The cytotoxic plants are popular household (crocus) and garden (crocus, vinca) plants that have been used to make anti-inflammatory drugs (colchicine from crocus), jewelry (castor bean, jequirty, or rosary pea), and to treat cancer (vinblastine and vincristine from vinca, podophyllotoxin
from may apple).
A separate prospective randomized trial reported that a triple combination of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin
, and salicylic acid worked better than cryotherapy to remove plantar warts (J.
One well-studied lignan, podophyllotoxin
, is so effective at targeting cancer cells for destruction it has been modified for use in chemotherapy.