pogrom


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pogrom

(pō`grəm, pōgrŏm`), Russian term, originally meaning "riot," that came to be applied to a series of violent attacks on Jews in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th cent. Pogroms were few before the assassination of Alexander IIAlexander II,
1818–81, czar of Russia (1855–81), son and successor of Nicholas I. He ascended the throne during the Crimean War (1853–56) and immediately set about negotiating a peace (see Paris, Congress of).
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 in 1881; after that, with the connivance of, or at least without hindrance from, the government, there were many pogroms throughout Russia. Soldiers and police often looked on without interfering. These pogroms encouraged the first emigration of Russian Jews to the United States. After 1882 there were few pogroms until 1903, when there was an extremely violent three-day pogrom at Chisinau resulting in the death of 45 Jews. Although it has not been conclusively proved that the czarist government organized pogroms, the government's anti-Semitic policies certainly encouraged them. After the abortive revolution of 1905, pogroms increased in number and violence. With the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, pogroms ceased in the Soviet Union; they were revived in Germany and Poland after Adolf Hitler attained power.

Bibliography

See E. H. Judge, Easter in Kishinev: Anatomy of a Pogrom (1992).

pogrom

an organized persecution or extermination of an ethnic group, esp of Jews
References in periodicals archive ?
He meticulously reviews primary and secondary sources to produce a comprehensive chronicle and critique both of the pogroms and of the reactions they provoked.
Known for an authoritarian leadership style, Modi's only expression of regret for the pogroms compared them to a car running over a puppy, while he labelled Muslim relief camps "baby-making factories".
Hence, Putin's pogrom jibe at the pro-EU demonstrators in contemporary Ukraine is pretty crude, a smear against pro-Western Ukrainian nationalists that paints them as a reactionary force with an anti-Semitic, tsarist, Nazi lineage, and ignoring the fact that it is the protesters who are being brutalised by the pro-Russian leadership of the country.
This Canadian response to the Kristallnacht pogrom differed from the reaction of U.
An estimated 30,000 Jewish men were arrested during the pogrom and sent to concentration camps.
The position of the Catholic episcopacy was that the Kielce pogrom was a bungled provocation, planned long in advance by the Communists.
As Smita Narula of Human Rights Watch pointed out in an op-ed in The Asian Wall Street Journal on the first anniversary of the pogrom, "There have been no convictions of those responsible.
The announcement was taking place as Sinn Fein staged a series of pickets across Belfast to highlight the plight of nationalist communities, which it claimed have borne the brunt of an ongoing loyalist pogrom.
For a small number of Crown Heights Jews, the riot was not simply an old-fashioned pogrom but a portent of the messianic era.
Having failed to defuse the sign of the pogrom with critical understanding, the world lies defenceless before its fatal summons.
It turns out that the Belgian has Jewish blood, that his mother was one of the survivors of the pogrom, and that although he was brought up in both Catholic and Jewish traditions and is not religious himself, he subconsciously wants to punish the community that was responsible for the events of half a century earlier.
Interspersed in this political evolution was the tragic pogrom of October 1905 in Odessa which diverted a part of the labour force--the unskilled and the marginal--away from revolution and toward a counterrevolution that served the interests of the state.