marriages are the norm in these areas, participation in such a marriage is not viewed as compulsory or permanently binding for the brothers.
Two of Laxmi's sons and three of her daughters aged from 13 to 25 are married, but none has chosen to enter a polyandrous
Before its putative transformation into a state governed by men in the middle of the eighth century, this "kingdom of women," more than any other then (or perhaps presently) known resembles a true matriarchy, in terms of matrilineality in surname and succession, matrifocal authority, and presumably matrilocal residence in a polyandrous
Setting the standards for appropriate treatment in male-female relationships, they defied the norms of patriarchy and Christianity by even indulging in polyandrous
practices and interracial intercourse.
1) These lines of awkward miscommunication are recognizable in the reporter's own attempted connection with the female protagonist Laverne, who, as the polyandrous
spectacle parachutist, is the object of all male attention in the novel.
The first set of arguments claims that polyandry is a cultural response to a prolonged absence of males in the family--a phenomenon observed commonly in all polyandrous
societies (Gough 1959, Prince Peter 1955).
Note that the presence of outer staminodes in a polyandrous
androecium has often been interpreted as evidence for a reductive trend (see Ronse Decraene & Smets, 1992, 1993).
Tilghman and her colleagues recently stumbled upon a publication from the 1960s that described cross-breeding between a monogamous mouse species and a closely related polyandrous
Sexual selection, arrival times, philopatry and site fidelity in the polyandrous
Sperm storage by females of the polyandrous
noctuid moth Heliothis virescens.
The relatively low total fertility rates in the northwestern regions may reflect the proportion of their populations that is composed of polyandrous
Four hypotheses frame nonparental infanticide as an adaptive behavior (Hrdy 1979): (1) killing young of another parent will increase the likelihood of mating with this individual or decrease the time until mating (sexual selection hypothesis), (2) infanticide will reduce competition for resources such as nest sites or food (resource competition hypothesis), (3) infanticide will direct more parental investment from a polyandrous
or polygamous mate toward the offspring of the perpetrator (parental investment hypothesis), and (4) direct exploitation of the young as food (cannibalism hypothesis).