Although there are obviously going to be small differences in the practice from region to region, the general features of Tibetan polyandry
are fairly stable.
Another interesting feature of polyandry
is that though the brothers share one wife, the children sired by them only carry the name of the eldest brother.
202 that does report instances of polyandry
in New Ireland.
They assumed that the period between promiscuity and monogamy would have seen slowly elaborating systems of polyandry
or polygamy, as the most primitive human social group (the 'horde') evolved towards its culmination in the modern nation state.
These included the kidnapping, sale, and purchase of girls, prostitution, and polyandry
Divorce and illegitimacy--to say nothing of maternal surrogacy, polygamy, polyandry
, multiple parenthood, and related political experiments involving children that defy the empirical evidence about what's best for them--all these and other forces are battering the natural family.
He also cites Sparta's unusual sexual customs, such as polyandry
(wives having more than one husband each), socially acceptable wife-sharing, and institutionalized pederasty between a young male citizen warrior and a teenage boy.
having multiple wives), polyandry
(a woman having multiple husbands) and
became a habit for some male settlers who shared one woman and produced their offspring as such, many males who could not find wives remained bachelors all their lives.
The effective population is influenced by "[t]he number of breeding individuals in a population, [t]ime fluctuations of the population size (seasonal, climatic change), [s]ex ratio, variance of the number of offspring (polygyny, polyandry
, sexual selection), [i]nbreeding, [and o]verlapping generations.
The 27 papers in the 2005 edition of the annual volume review recent studies on the evolution of fluctuating asymmetry, polyandry
, aphid- ant interactions, and agriculture in insects; and the evolutionary ecology of gynogenesis and plant adaptation to serpentine.
218) In fact, according to Murphy, there were four types of marriage: "(1) monogamy; (2) polygyny, or one man with several wives; (3) polyandry
, or one woman with several husbands; and (4) group marriage.