74): while the Freiburg school derives the principle of subsidiary order and polyarchy
from individualism and the impossibility of universal knowledge, and thus concluding the impossibility of perfectionism at all, it is only in a prospective of higher wisdom that Rosmini affirms the moral impossibility of completely fulfilling the ethical norm in its entirety.
2015c) as well as several working papers on the polyarchy
and the executive index (Teorell & Lindberg 2015, nd 2016) on a long series of component and subcomponent indices (Teorell et al.
In defining eligibility as the third axis of the polyarchy
model, Wanderley Guilherme dos Santos highlights the importance of its role in democratic stability given that the changes in the rules of eligibility demonstrate the number of participants, both in democratic and non-democratic circumstances (17).
Politica 1982-1989 Polyarchy
22% Protected 41% Unaddressed/unclear 37% Nota: Tabla derivada de grafico segmentado.
is not only a system of government but a rigorous attempt to view democratic process as a function of several features which include; (1) freedom of speech (2) freedom of association (3) the supremacy of the will of the electorate (4) regular elections and (5) accountability.
22) The most likely policy of transnational oriented elites will be to continue to undermine or marginalize any alternatives to the status quo, deepening polyarchy
in the country in order to secure local political alignment with their interests and intensify the country's integration with global capital.
is also the preferable way to face, or at least control, the popular sectors and their demands within the framework of an unjust social system.
By way of example, one can take the so-called 'transitions' to democracy, here understood as the promotion of polyarchy
, referring to 'a system in which a small group actually rules and mass participation in decision-making is consigned to leadership choice in elections carefully managed by competing elites' (Robinson 1996: 49).
She frames her understanding of the transformations of power from tyranny to polyarchy
according to Scheler's law.
, participation and opposition, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1971.
What Russians are now living through is the neoliberal version of democracy which Russia adopted after 1991, better described as polyarchy
, where factions of the ruling elite allow for some cosmetic change of faces, but where elections are controlled by the corporatised state and commented on by the corporatised media, all in league.
The opposites of such a governance mode based on rational-legal authority are classic patrimonialism, as defined by Max Weber, or post-modern particularism, such as defined by Guillermo O'Donnell as an extreme form of client relationship, including "various sorts of non-universalistic relationships, ranging from hierarchical particularistic exchanges, patronage, nepotism, and favours to actions that, under the formal rules of the institutional package of polyarchy
, would be considered corrupt" (O'Donnell 1996, p.