Polyester Fiber


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

polyester fiber

[′päl·ē‚es·tər ′fī·bər]
(textiles)
A fiber filament made from a material that is 85% or more thermoplastic polyester resin.

Polyester Fiber

 

a synthetic fiber formed from a polyethylene terephthalate melt. Polyester fibers surpass most natural and chemical fibers in thermostability, as they retain 50 percent of their strength at 180°C. They do not catch fire easily and go out once the source of ignition is removed; no charring occurs upon contact with a spark or electric arc. The fibers also are relatively weather-resistant. They are soluble in phenols and partly soluble (with decomposition) in concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids, but they decompose completely when boiled in concentrated alkalies. Steam processing at 100°C reduces fiber strength (0.12 percent after 1 hr) owing to partial hydrolysis of the polymer. Polyester fibers are resistant to acetone, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroethane, and other solvents. They also resist deterioration from microorganisms, moths, molds, and carpet beetles. The resistance of polyester fibers to abrasion and multiple flexure is lower than that of polyamide fibers, whereas the impact strength is higher. The fibers display higher tensile strength than other types of chemical fibers.

Polyester fibers have the following deficiencies: they are difficult to dye by the usual methods, they have strong electrostatic properties and a tendency to peel, and the fabrics are stiff. These weaknesses are eliminated in many cases by introducing a chemical modification of polyethylene terephthalate, for example, dimethyl isophthalate or dimethyl adipinate. (These compounds are added to the reaction mixture during the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate.)

Commercial polyester fibers are used in the manufacture of conveyer belts, transmission belts, ropes, cables, sails, fishing nets and trawls, gasoline-resistant and oilproof hoses, electrical insulating materials, filtering materials, and tire cord. They have also been used successfully in medicine (synthetic arterial grafts, surgical thread). The monofilament is used in the manufacture of netting for paper-making machines, brushes for cotton-harvesting machines, and strings for sports rackets. Commercial fibers are used in the manufacture of knitwear, tafetta-like fabrics, and crepes. Bulky yarn, such as Crimplene and Melane, is obtained by false twisting. Polyester staples are blended with wool, cotton, or linen for the manufacture of fabrics for suits, coats, shirts, dresses, and tulle curtains. Polyester fibers in pure or mixed form are used to make synthetic furs and carpets. Felt made from polyester fibers surpasses felt made from natural wool in basic properties.

Polyester fibers are manufactured under the following trade names: Lavsan (USSR), Terylene (Great Britain), Dacron (United States), Tetoron (Japan), Elana (Poland), Tergal (France), and Tesil (Czechoslovakia). World production of polyester fibers totaled approximately 3.4 million tons in 1975.

REFERENCE

Entsiklopediia polimerov, vol. 3. Moscow, 1977.
References in periodicals archive ?
a supplier of polyester fiber, said early this month it was increasing its polyester fiber prices by 16 cents per pound.
The process will shred the fabric and filters out impurities to get as-new polyester fibers.
The spinoff plan comes as Teijin's profitability in the polyester fiber business is rapidly deteriorating due to increased imports of similar cheap products from China.
The latest sign of polyester's distress came on June 7, when DuPont, the world's largest producer of polyester fiber, said it would cut 900 jobs, or 19 percent, of its Dacron polyester fiber work force.
ComFortrel by Poole polyester fiber includes technical properties and softness similar to the previous ComFortrel.
Amid the opportunity, there is great challenge faced by polyester fiber producers including Indonesia with allegations of dumping and subsidy and imposition of protective measure under the safeguard mechanism allowed by WTO.
manufacturers -- DuPont, KoSa, Nan Ya, Intercontinental Polymers and Wellman -- allege in the petition that they are being "materially injured" by imports of polyester fiber that are being dumped here: that is, being sold at less than fair value.
By 1994, advanced polyester fiber use should increase to more than 80% of the radial passenger and light truck tire market.
Studies from NAPCOR determined that the use of PCR polyester fiber versus virgin polyester fiber reduces energy consumption by 84% and greenhouse gas emissions by 71%.
According to a new report published by Transparency Market Research " Polyester Fiber (Solid and Hollow) Market for Carpet & Rugs, Nonwoven Fabrics, Fiberfill and Other Applications - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019, " the global market for polyester fiber was valued at USD 62.
Wellman, which manufactures polyester fiber, said that profitability is being adversely affected by significant reductions in selling prices for polyester fiber and PET resins used in the production of soft drink and other bottles, which are expected to more than offset lower raw material costs.
Polyester fibers producer Teijin Fibers has developed a polyester fiber with a distinctive, highly modified cross-section with eight projections aligned in a radial pattern around a hollow fiber.