Polysynthetic Language

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Polysynthetic Language

 

a type of synthetic language in which all grammatical meanings are usually conveyed in a word composed of a long sequence of morphemes.

Most polysynthetic languages have an ergative-type structure, as is the case with the Chukchi-Kamchatka, Eskimo-Aleut, and Abkhazo-Adyg languages and many Indian languages of North and Central America. The maximum degree of affix stringing is observed in the verb form, which includes a series of suffixal, or prefixai and suffixal, morphemes indicating person (objective conjugation), number, version, mode of action, tense, mood, and so on. All forms are constructed according to the principle of agglutination by strict positional rules. Moreover, word-formation affixes are also often present in the word. The verb form in polysynthetic languages usually represents the content of an entire sentence, as in the Adygei qə-š′ə-s’°-fə-r-i-γ ǎ-tx̌əγ (“he made him write to you here”). Nominal forms are represented by shorter morphemic chains, since analytic elements are found in the substantive, as in the Eskimo ayΧasi-ki-η (“my two boats”). The phenomenon of incorporation also occurs in polysynthetic languages.

G. A. KLIMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Plagioclase (20%) forms heteroblastic and xenoblastic individuals of skeletal (due to dissolution) and locally poiquiloblastic (due to inclusions of clinozoisite, titanite, hornblende and epidote) character, which are characterized by polysynthetic twinning.
We begin to suspect that inflectional and polysynthetic languages have much in common.
The presence of the long parallel white needles, identified as diaspore and boehmite, is correlated to the polysynthetic twin planes oriented in rhombohedral (10[bar.
This method is useful for inflective languages, but it is not recommended for agglutinative or polysynthetic ones.
Plagioclase feldspar: laths with polysynthetic twinning; some show simple twinning as well.
I found myself wondering if they used some new high-density polysynthetic material for the ball instead of Indian rubber (or as we called it - Native prophylactics).
According to him, "[i]n a nutshell, it combines weakly inflecting type inflectional morphology (including the tendency towards monosyllabic [Germanic] roots and lack of morphological gender and paradigm distinction) with strongly inflecting (fusional) type derivation morphology in its large Latinate lexical stratum, rather agglutinating Germanic derivational morphology, and polysynthetic aspects of compounding.
Nahuatl differs greatly from Spanish and other European languages in that it is polysynthetic (that is, it has full noun incorporation and full subject/object agreement paradigms).
Set on getting to know the Polar Inughuit, Leonard was first and foremost determined to learn their language, seen as an almost impossible quest as this polysynthetic language uses constructions of several hundred affixes.
Plagioclase has diagnostic polysynthetic twinning wh ereas microcline has cross-hatched twinning.
Polysynthetic twinning in translucent calcites is mostly straight, rarely bent or disordered; accessory dolomite grains are small and rich in lattice defects and mineral inclusions.