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see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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The liquid portion that remains when blood is allowed to clot spontaneously and is then centrifuged to remove the blood cells and clotting elements. It has approximately the same volume (55%) as plasma and differs from it only by the absence of fibrinogen. See Fibrinogen

Blood serum contains 6–8% solids, including macromolecules such as albumin, antibodies and other globulins, and enzymes; peptide and lipid-based hormones; and cytokines; as well as certain nutritive organic materials in small amounts, such as amino acids, glucose, and fats. Somewhat less than 1% of the serum consists of inorganic substances. Small amounts of respiratory gases are dissolved in the serum, as is the gas nitric oxide, which serves as a chemical messenger and vasodilator. Small amounts of waste material are also present. These substances, along with other small molecules which are not bound to blood proteins, are filtered out as blood flows through the kidney. See Blood, Kidney

Certain types of sera, both human and animals, are used in clinical medicine. Immune serum and hyperimmune serum either are developed by naturally occurring disease or are deliberately prepared by repeated injection of antigens to increase antibody titer for either diagnostic tests or the treatment of active disease. These sera are referred to as antisera, since they have a specific antagonistic action against specific antigens. See Antibody, Antigen, Biologicals, Immunity

By custom, the clear portion of any liquid material of animal origin separated from its solid or cellular elements is also referred to as sera. These fluids are more properly referred to as effusions. See Serology


The liquid portion that remains when blood clots spontaneously and the formed and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation; it differs from plasma by the absence of fibrinogen.


1. See blood serum
2. antitoxin obtained from the blood serum of immunized animals
3. Physiol zoology clear watery fluid, esp that exuded by serous membranes
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 2 summarizes the results of the imprecision analysis using 2 female and 2 male pooled serum control materials.
Other findings reported by 3M (2003) included several blood bank pooled serum samples obtained in 1998 from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany that had mean (range in parentheses) serum PFOS concentrations of 17 (5-22) ng/mL, 53 (39-61) ng/mL, and 37 (32-46) ng/mL, respectively.
We also report background exposures to dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the same time period as measured in pooled serum samples from female residents of zone non-ABR.
Our examination of miRNA concentrations in pooled serum samples from 86 nonmetastatic patients, 55 metastatic patients, and 40 healthy individuals by Solexa sequencing showed that miRNAs were the major components of small RNAs in serum (see Table 2 in the online Data Supplement).
We evaluated analytical accuracy, precision, and extraction efficiency by analyzing two pairs (one pair in each batch) of matrix spike samples (aliquots of pooled serum spiked with 0.
The pooled serum from colorectal tumor patients was spiked with the reporter peptide, and after 1 h incubation and subsequent affinity chromatography enrichment with Ni-chelate before MALDI-TOF MS a peak with m/z 1349.
We determined the limit of quantitation (LOQ), defined as the lowest measurable analyte level with an interassay measurement CV of <20%, by analyzing repeatedly 2 replicates each of 5 pooled serum controls over a period of 10 days.
For MAb testing, pooled serum (39 patients with severe HF) or pooled plasma (10 HF patients) was used as a source of endogenous antigens.
30 in the reaction mixture containing 50 [micro]L of pooled serum, 20 [micro]L of acceptor solution, 25 mmol/L MES (pH 6.
Content of thiol/containing amino acids and peptides [(mean (SD) of triplicates] in albumin and globulin fractions of pooled serum with a total protein concentration of 73 g/L and albumin concentration of 49.