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see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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The liquid portion that remains when blood is allowed to clot spontaneously and is then centrifuged to remove the blood cells and clotting elements. It has approximately the same volume (55%) as plasma and differs from it only by the absence of fibrinogen. See Fibrinogen

Blood serum contains 6–8% solids, including macromolecules such as albumin, antibodies and other globulins, and enzymes; peptide and lipid-based hormones; and cytokines; as well as certain nutritive organic materials in small amounts, such as amino acids, glucose, and fats. Somewhat less than 1% of the serum consists of inorganic substances. Small amounts of respiratory gases are dissolved in the serum, as is the gas nitric oxide, which serves as a chemical messenger and vasodilator. Small amounts of waste material are also present. These substances, along with other small molecules which are not bound to blood proteins, are filtered out as blood flows through the kidney. See Blood, Kidney

Certain types of sera, both human and animals, are used in clinical medicine. Immune serum and hyperimmune serum either are developed by naturally occurring disease or are deliberately prepared by repeated injection of antigens to increase antibody titer for either diagnostic tests or the treatment of active disease. These sera are referred to as antisera, since they have a specific antagonistic action against specific antigens. See Antibody, Antigen, Biologicals, Immunity

By custom, the clear portion of any liquid material of animal origin separated from its solid or cellular elements is also referred to as sera. These fluids are more properly referred to as effusions. See Serology


The liquid portion that remains when blood clots spontaneously and the formed and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation; it differs from plasma by the absence of fibrinogen.


1. See blood serum
2. antitoxin obtained from the blood serum of immunized animals
3. Physiol zoology clear watery fluid, esp that exuded by serous membranes
References in periodicals archive ?
As shown in [Figure 1], separation of 2 [micro]l of pooled serum is displayed in lanes 1 and 2, indicating that major proteins that is albumin, are overwhelming and make low abundance proteins less visible on the gel.
Other findings reported by 3M (2003) included several blood bank pooled serum samples obtained in 1998 from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany that had mean (range in parentheses) serum PFOS concentrations of 17 (5-22) ng/mL, 53 (39-61) ng/mL, and 37 (32-46) ng/mL, respectively.
In the present study, however, we were concerned that this pooled serum sample, from U.
We also report background exposures to dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the same time period as measured in pooled serum samples from female residents of zone non-ABR.
This approach involves an SBS screen of a pooled serum sample followed by RT-qPCR validation of individual samples.
Intraassay imprecision was performed by assaying pooled serum controls 20 times within the same run for each derivatizing reagent.
Table 1 shows that the omission of chloride has only a slight effect on the sample of pooled serum (control) with typical albumin concentrations, but it has a profound effect on the FDH samples.
In the initial biomarker-screening stage, pooled serum samples from 141 ESCC patients who were treated at Jinling Hospital, the Cancer Hospital of Xuzhou, or the Cancer Hospital of Jiangsu Province underwent Solexa sequencing (miRBase 12.
QC samples derived from pooled serum stored at -80 [degrees]C had ADAM12s concentrations of 86.
Mixing 50 [micro]L of 200 [micro]mol/L substrate Biotin-Abu-Ahx-WKPYDAADL-Ahx-HHHHHHt (Table 1) and 50 [micro]L pooled serum from cancer patients resulted in a final substrate concentration of 100 [micro]mol/L.