These ions diffuse through the liquid layer to the surface of the concrete where they interact with calcium ions, which mostly derive from sparingly soluble portlandite
Mercury intrusion porosimetry was inadequate for assessing the surface porosity because the high pressure involved led to the rupture of the very thin crystals of portlandite
and the results were irrelevant.
6, it was identified that the main minerals of the samples of the expanded-clay lightweight concrete, where 15% catalyst waste materials were utilised (D), are illite, silica, calcite, portlandite
, sunstone and cement minerals.
The system will be influenced by the presence of portlandite
The presence of portlandite
was shown in the PXRD patterns of the temperature around 1000-1400[degrees]C (Figure 4).
FBA contains approximately 35% of total Ca in soluble gypsum and portlandite
, and 65% as the less soluble calcite and ettringite (Wang et al.
The major difference in the mineral composition between the hydrated samples after 7 days is the disappearance of CaO and the portlandite
It is evident that the peak intensity and location for hydration products were mostly identical between the three Portland cement, implying that there was marginal difference in forming hydrations: alite, belite, calcite, and portlandite
Inside large pores, ITZ contains predominantly large crystals of portlandite
In this study, the significantly higher yield achieved by the FBA treatment supports the explanation given above, because slaked FBA contained not only gypsum but portlandite
, calcite and other alkaline components and these compounds were responsible for the significant decrease in labile monomeric Al concentrations in the topsoils (Figs 1 and 2).
Figure 5 shows the SEM image of SFCS15 specimen, and, from the observation, it is evident that the presence of mullite and aluminosilicate by the addition of cenosphere replaces the spaces created by the absence of portlandite
The weight loss for portlandite
and calcite presented in air lime was 8.