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postimpressionism,term coined by Roger Fry to refer to the work of a number of French painters active at the end of the 19th cent. who, although they developed their varied styles quite independently, were united in their rejection of impressionismimpressionism,
in painting, late-19th-century French school that was generally characterized by the attempt to depict transitory visual impressions, often painted directly from nature, and by the use of pure, broken color to achieve brilliance and luminosity.
..... Click the link for more information. . The foremost of these were CézanneCézanne, Paul
, 1839–1906, French painter, b. Aix-en-Provence. Cézanne was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting.
..... Click the link for more information. , Van GoghVan Gogh, Vincent
, 1853–90, postimpressionist painter, b. the Netherlands. Van Gogh's works are perhaps better known generally than those of any other painter. His brief, turbulent, and tragic life is thought to epitomize the mad genius legend.
..... Click the link for more information. , GauguinGauguin, Paul
, 1848–1903, French painter and woodcut artist, b. Paris; son of a journalist and a French-Peruvian mother. Early Life
Gauguin was first a sailor, then a successful stockbroker in Paris. In 1874 he began to paint on weekends.
..... Click the link for more information. , MatisseMatisse, Henri
, 1869–1954, French painter, sculptor, and lithographer. Along with Picasso, Matisse is considered one of the two foremost artists of the modern period. His contribution to 20th-century art is inestimably great.
..... Click the link for more information. , PicassoPicasso, Pablo
(Pablo Ruiz y Picasso) , 1881–1973, Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and ceramist, who worked in France. He is generally considered in his technical virtuosity, enormous versatility, and incredible originality and prolificity to have been the
..... Click the link for more information. , and BraqueBraque, Georges
, 1882–1963, French painter. He joined the artists involved in developing fauvism in 1905, and at l'Estaque c.1909 he was profoundly influenced by Cézanne.
..... Click the link for more information. . The first major exhibitions of their works were held in London in 1910–11 and in 1912. The term embraces a far wider school of thought than the neoimpressionism of SeuratSeurat, Georges
, 1859–91, French neoimpressionist painter. He devised the pointillist technique of painting in tiny dots of pure color. His method, called divisionism, was a systematic refinement of the broken color of the impressionists.
..... Click the link for more information. and SignacSignac, Paul
, 1863–1935, French neoimpressionist painter. First influenced by Monet, he was later associated with Seurat in developing the divisionist technique. Interested in the science of color, he painted with a greater intensity and with broader strokes than Seurat.
..... Click the link for more information. . In this more systematic and precise approach, also called divisionism or pointillism, small dabs of pure color on the canvas were meant to be mixed by the eye of the viewer to produce intense color effects.
See studies by J. Rewald (1962) and L. Nochlin (1966).
a conventional designation for the principal movements of French painting in the late 19th century and the early years of the 20th century.
As early as the mid-1880’s the postimpressionists, most of whom had formerly been part of the impressionist movement, sought new figurative means that were, in their opinion, more in harmony with the times. They attempted to overcome empirical artistic thinking and to abandon representations of life’s fleeting moments in favor of its lasting spiritual and material states. Reflected in postimpressionism were almost all the decadent features of Western European culture of that time—its complicated changes and the agonizing and contradictory experimentation by artists of stable intellectual and moral values. The postimpressionist period is characterized by the mutual influences of artistic movements and the distinctive work of individual artists.
Although a number of postimpressionist tendencies, such as neo-impressionism, symbolism, and the nabis (a French art nouveau movement), are qualitatively confined within the temporal limits referred to above, the work of their leading masters, owing to the problems which they raised, is the basis of 20th-century figurative art. The foremost postimpressionist artists included Cézanne, van Gogh, Gauguin, and Toulouse Lautrec.
REFERENCESRewald, J. Postimpressionizm. Leningrad-Moscow, 1962. (Translated from English.)
Prokof”ev, V. N. Postimpressionizm (album). Moscow, 1973.