preparation

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preparation

1. something that is prepared, esp a medicinal formulation
2. esp in a boarding school
a. homework
b. the period reserved for this
3. Music
a. the anticipation of a dissonance so that the note producing it in one chord is first heard in the preceding chord as a consonance
b. a note so employed
4. the preliminary prayers at Mass or divine service

Preparation

 

the making of animal and plant specimens, including fossils, for study.

To prepare organisms for anatomical study, animals are dissected, and plants are dismembered. The separate organs or organ systems are placed in fixative fluids. For making total preparations, animal organs are set right and stained, the circulatory and respiratory systems are filled with slightly jelling mastics or plastics, and, sometimes, sections are made of certain organs. If necessary, the organs are attached to a supporting plate. For plant preparation, longitudinal, radial, tangential, transverse, and superficial sections of organs are made. Skeletons and chitinous and limestone carapaces, as well as the conducting systems of plants, are freed from the soft tissues by maceration or by boiling in special solutions, such as caustic alkalies. Mammals, birds, and reptiles can be stuffed (taxidermy), and, in some cases, the skin coverings are dried and mounted. A special form of plant preparation is the mounting of an herbarium.

Microscopic preparation of objects (entire microorganisms, separate organs, organ parts, tissues, cells, intracellular formations, molecular and submolecular structures) involves a very exact procedure. A wide range of fixatives, stains, and reagents for dehydration, clarification, impregnation, and differentiated separation of the objects under examination is used. The making of temporary or permanent specimens involves enclosing the specially treated object between a microscope slide and a cover glass (seeMICROTECHNIQUE).

The preparation of fossil objects involves freeing them from their enclosing rock. The cleaned objects are then impregnated with various fixing substances and covered with special lacquers. Imprints of organisms on an enclosing rock (usually including fragments of organs) are fixed and preserved on parts of the rock.

REFERENCES

Prokhorov, M. G. Instruktsiia dlia raskopok, preparovki i montirovki iskopaemykh pozvonochnykh, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1931.
Komarov, V. L. Prakticheskii kurs anatomii rastenii, 8th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Romeis, B. Mikroskopicheskaia tekhnika. Moscow, 1954. (Translated from German.)
Dal’, K. K. Posobie dlia rabotnikov anatomo-zoologicheskikh muzeev i kafedr biologii. Dushanbe, 1965.
Zaslavskii, M. A. Izgotovlenie chuchel, muliazhei i modelei zhivotnykh. Obshchaia taksidermiia. Leningrad, 1968.
Kukhtina, Zh. M. Rukovodstvo k prakticheskim zaniatiiam po tsitologii. Moscow, 1971.

O. L. ROSSOLIMO

References in classic literature ?
Again, when lovers are coming forth, soft music often conducts them on the stage, either to soothe the audience with the softness of the tender passion, or to lull and prepare them for that gentle slumber in which they will most probably be composed by the ensuing scene.
If you are right," I said, "then we must prepare to winter here.
Prepare yourself, dear friend--she's gone out for a long time--she's--she's gone altogether.
In early 2007, H engages J to prepare the couple's joint tax return for 2006.
More than three out of five teacher education alumni surveyed (62 percent) report that schools of education do not prepare their graduates to cope with the realities of today's classrooms.
What can be learned from this is that the development of local emergency organizations, reinforcement of training and investment in communications systems are what will best prepare us for the next disaster--be it hurricane, act of terrorism, or the next earthquake.
This form is a foundation for an Emergency Action Plan but does not prepare your property for the myriad of emergency events that can occur.
Whereas some police departments may have needed to increase cooperation between their bomb squads and hazardous materials units to prepare for the threat of a dirty bomb, Suffolk County had these capabilities combined in one unit.
In addition, we prepare for Jesus' coming by giving love away.
It is fitting that we help others while we help our students prepare for the future.
As described above, by using a minimal amount of a volatile weak acid to prepare the spray drying solutions, the process is in theory capable of producing HA materials that contain little or no impurity components.
Last year we put out a Q&A on rust for our internal people to begin to prepare for rust and worked with ASA on education publications," says Jim Peters, brand manager, fungicides.

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