preserve


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preserve

areas where game is reared for private hunting or fishing

Preserve

 

a land or water area on which the natural state of its entire natural complex is maintained. Areas designated as preserves are usually those that are typical for particular geographic zones or regions or that contain natural objects that are of value from a scientific point of view, such as species of flora and fauna, types of landscapes, or minerals. The category also includes museum preserves, which may contain an entire city or any part of a city, an estate, or a park representing a particular historical, artistic, or memorial heritage.

Preserves are one form of nature preservation; multifaceted integrated nature study is conducted in them. Preserves and similar areas acquire particular significance because their network encompasses virtually all natural zones (see the list following the References section).

Before the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, a number of preserves had been established: Askaniia-Nova, the Lagodekhi Preserve, Moricsala, the Vaika Preserve, the Barguzin Preserve, and Kedrovaia Pad’. A broad system of preserves has been created during the years of Soviet power. V. I. Lenin provided a great deal of support for the preservation of natural zones. In 1919 the Astrakhan Preserve was created with his approval. In 1920, Lenin signed a decree on the establishment of the ITmen Preserve in the southern Urals. The decree On the Preservation of Monuments of Nature, Gardens, and Parks was promulgated on Sept. 16, 1921, and laws on preservation of nature were subsequently adopted in the Union republics. As of 1971 there were more than 90 preserves in the USSR, with a territory of more than 7 million hectares (ha). Favorable conditions have been created in these preserves for stationary long-term observation of natural phenomena and the life of wild animals and plants in their natural state. The scientific activity of pre-serves is conducted in close contact with institutes and branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the academies of sciences of the Union republics, universities, and other research and educational institutions. Scientific work conducted in preserves has provided extensive material for the development of ecology and the preparation of methods for the preservation and rational use of various natural resources. The results of scientific observations are presented in the publications of the Trudy (Transactions) of the preserves and in monographs and press articles.

L. K. SHAPOSHNIKOV

Legal status. In Soviet law the term “preserve” is used to indicate (1) fully protected land or water areas containing natural objects of particular scientific or cultural interest and value and (2) scientific research establishments for which specific land or water areas have been set aside. The lands of preserves are totally removed from economic use. Any activity that would disturb the natural state or threaten the preservation of natural objects is forbidden by law both on the territory of the preserve and in the surrounding protective zone. Prohibited activities include all hunting, trapping, and destruction by any means of birds and animals or their nests and lairs, fishing, collection of eggs or down, cutting of bushes or trees, mining, pasturing of livestock, cutting of hay, and the construction of industrial, agricultural, or other installations not associated with the activities of the preserve. Foot and motor traffic may pass through the preserve only on public roads or trails. Outsiders may be on the territory of preserves with the permission of the local administration. Persons without such permission are considered poachers if they have weapons or fishing tackle with them. The status of each preserve is determined by the Council of Ministers of the Union republic in which it is located, on the basis of the Statute on the State Preserves of the USSR of Oct. 27, 1951, and the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of June 10, 1961, On the Regulation of the System of State Preserves and Hunting Preserves (Collection of Decrees of the USSR, 1961, no. 10, art. 82). According to this decree, new preserves are created by decisions of the Councils of Ministers of Union republics in coordination with Gosplan (State Planning Committee) of the USSR. Such forms of nature preservation as national (people’s or natural) parks and reserves, which in many respects are similar in legal status to preserves in the USSR, are widespread in foreign countries.

O. S. KOLBASOV

REFERENCES

Zapovedniki i natsional’nye parki mira: Kratkii spravochnik. Edited by L. K. Shaposhnikov. Moscow, 1969.
Zapovedniki Sovetskogo Soiuza. Edited by A. G. Bannikov. Moscow, 1969.
Resursy biosfery na territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1971.
Following is a list of preserves, national parks, and other protected areas of the world. (The information given includes the official name and, in parentheses, the year of establishment and the area in ha, according to 1970 data.)

RSFSR

Altai Preserve (1934, 863,805)

Barguzin Preserve (1916, 248,200)

Bashkir Preserve (1930, 72,049)

Bol’she-Khekhtsir Preserve (1963, 46,000)

Caucasus Preserve (1924, 262,500)

Darwin Preserve (1945, 112,600)

Kandalaksha Preserve (1932, 28,893)

Kedrovaia Pad’ (1916, 17,900)

Khingan Preserve (1963, 58,300)

Khoper Preserve (1935, 16,200)

Khungariiskii Preserve (1966, 2,000)

Kivach (1931, 10,315)

Komosomol Preserve (1963, 32,200)

Kronotsk Preserve (1934, 964,000)

Lapland Preserve (1930, 158,400)

Lazov (until 1970, Sudzukhe) Preserve (1936, 116,500)

Mari Preserve (1968, 14,452)

Oka Preserve (1935, 22,900)

Pechora-Ilych Preserve (1930, 721,322)

P. G. Smidovich Mordvinian Preserve (1935, 32,100)

Prioksko-Terrasnyi Preserve (1945, 4,800)

Severnaia Osetiia Preserve (1967, 26,133)

Sikhote-Alin’ Preserve (1935, 310,100)

Stolby (1925, 47,200)

Suputinsk Preserve (1932, 16,500)

Teberda Preserve (1936, 83,400)

Tsentral’nolesnoi Preserve (1931, 21,400)

V. I. Lenin Astrakhan Preserve (1919, 72,500)

V. I. Lenin Il’men Preserve (1920, 32,100)

Volga-Kama Preserve (1960, 7,538)

Voronezh Preserve (1927, 30,800)

V. V. Alekhin Central Chernozem Preserve (1935, 4,200)

Zeia (1963, 82,300)

Zhiguli (1937, 19,411)

Ukrainian SSR

Askaniia-Nova(1921, 10,500)

Black Sea Preserve (1927, 45,500)

Carpathian Preserve (1968, 12,672)

Kanev Preserve (1968, 1,035)

Lugansk Preserve (1968, 988)

Poles’e Preserve (1968, 19,932)

Ukrainian Steppe Preserve (four sections) (1925–37, 2,115)

Azov-Sivash Natural and Hunting Preserve (1927, 12,000)

Crimean Natural and Hunting Preserve (1923, 26,600)

Byelorussian SSR

Berezina Preserve (1925, 76,500)

Belovezha Forest, Natural, and Hunting Preserve (1939, 74,200)

Uzbek SSR

Aral-Paigambar Preserve (1964, 4,000)

Chatkal Mountain and Forest Preserve (1947, 34,800)

Zaamin Mountain and Forest Preserve (1960, 10,500)

Kazakh SSR

Aksu-Dzhabagli Preserve (1926, 75,000)

Alma-Ata Preserve (1935, 71,700)

Barsakel’mes Preserve (1939, 18,500)

Naurzum Preserve (1930, 100,000)

Georgian SSR

Adzhameti Preserve (1946, 4,848)

Algeti Preserve (1965, 6,400)

Babaneuli Preserve (1960, 762)

Batsara Preserve (1957, 3,052)

Borzhomi Preserve (1935, 18,027)

Gumisti Preserve (1941, 13,055)

Kintrish Preserve (1959, 6,943)

Kolkhida Preserve (1935, 500)

Lagodekhi Preserve (1912, 13,283)

Mariamdzhvar Preserve (1959, 1,098)

Miussera Preserve (1946, 3,579)

Pitsunda Preserve (1947, 150)

Ponti Preserve (1957, 1,400)

Ritsa Preserve (1947, 16,123)

Sagurami Preserve (1946, 5,083)

Satapli Preserve (1957, 300)

Tsiskari Preserve (1959, 3,928)

Vashlovani Preserve (1946, 5,952)

Azerbaijan SSR

Gek-GeP (GeigeF) Preserve (1925, 7,500)

Girkanskii Preserve (1936, 3,100)

S. M. Kirov Kyzylagach Preserve (1929, 88,000)

Turianchai Preserve (1958, 12,700)

Zakataly Preserve (1930, 25,300)

Lithuanian SSR

žuvintas(1946, 5,421)

Latvian SSR

Engures (1957, 1,340)

Grini (1957, 700)

Moricsala(1912, 835)

šlítere (1957, 7,860)

Kirghiz SSR

Issyk-Kul Preserve (1958, 781,600)

Sary-Chelek Preserve (1959, 20,700)

Tadzhik SSR

Ramit(1959, 16,100)

Tigrovaia Balka (1938, 41,100)

Armenian SSR

Dilizhan Preserve (1958, 28,900)

Khosrov Preserve (1958, 21,100)

Turkmen SSR

Badkhyz Preserve (1941, 85,700)

Krasnovodsk Preserve (1932, 270,000)

Repetek Preserve (1928, 34,600)

Estonian SSR

Matsalu Preserve (1957, 11,000)

Nigula Preserve (1957, 2,730)

Vóika Preserve (1910, 35)

Viidumóe Preserve (1957, 593)

Albania

Dajti, national park (1956, 3,000)

Divjaka, national park (1956, 2,000)

Lura, national park (1956, 3,000)

Tomori, national park (1956, 3,000)

Austria

Amering-Grossenberg Stubalpe, preserve (1942, 20,900)

Ennstaler Alpen-Laussa, preserve (1941, 57,000)

Gams-Wildalpen, preserve (1941, 52,000)

Hinterstoder Priel, preserve (no date, 60,000)

Hochlantsch Schöckl, preserve (1941, 29,000)

Hochschwab Aflenzer Staritzen Kaiserschild, preserve (1942, 55,000)

Karwendel Preserve (1943, 72,000)

Neusiedler See, preserve (1940, 35,000)

Reinisch Kógel, preserve (1941, 20,600)

Schladminger Tauern, preserve (1941, 67,500)

Seckauer Alpe Bosenstein, preserve (1941, 65,500)

Turacher Alpe, preserve (1941, 27,000)

Belgium

Bruyère de Kalmthout, national park (1941, 1,730)

Hautes-Fagnes, national park (1957, 3,400)

Lesse et Lhomme, national park (1958, 819)

Tintange, preserve (1965, 2,400)

Bulgaria

Golden Sands, people’s park (1943, 2,031)

Ropotamo, people’s park (1940, 847)

Steneto, people’s park (1963, 1,666)

Vikhren, people’s park (1962, 6,736)

Vitosha, people’s park (1934, 22,800)

Czechoslovakia

Drastvica, preserve (1953, 10,000)

Krkonoše, people’s park (1963, 35,384)

Pěniny, people’s park (1932, 2,115)

Polana, preserve (1953, 12,500)

Tatra, people’s park (1948, 50,000)

Denmark

Randból Hede, preserve (no date, 1,400)

Skallingen, preserve (1939, 3,000)

Tipperne and Klaegbanken, preserve (1936, 900)

Federal Republic of Germany

Bergstrasse-Odenwald, natural park (1960, 170,700)

Harz, natural park (1960, 95,000)

Hochtaunus, natural park (1962, 120,000)

Hohe Mark, natural park (1963, 95,000)

Meissner-Kaufunger Wald, natural park (1962, 41,400)

Nassau, natural park (1962, 53,000)

Nordeifel, natural park (1960, 133,500)

Pfälzer Wald, natural park (1958, 179,000)

Rothaargebirge, natural park (1963, 113,000)

Spessart, natural park (1960, 126,000)

Südeifel, natural park (1958, 39,500)

Finland

Lemmenjoki, national park (1956, 38,500)

Linnansaari, national park (1956, 800)

Malla, natural park (1919, 3,000)

Oulanka, national park (1956, 10,700)

Pallas Ounastunturi, natural park (1938, 50,000)

Pisavaara, natural park (1938, 5,000)

Pyhähäkki, national park (1956, 1,010)

Pyhätunturi, national park (1938, 3,000)

France

Camargue, preserve (1928, 13,500)

Lauzanier, preserve (.1934, 3,000)

Nèouvielle, preserve (1935, 2,200)

Pelvoux, national park (1913, 13,000)

Vanoise, national park (1963, 60,000)

German Democratic Republic

Bock und Hohe Düne von Pramort, preserve (1957, 1,932)

Darss, preserve (1957, 1,130)

Gallenbecker See and Friedlander-Grosse Wiese, preserve (1939, 1,015)

Grosser Stechlinsee, Hehmitz, and Grosser Krukow See, preserve (1938, 1,774)

Hinrichshagen, preserve (1962, 1,124)

Jasmund, preserve (1935, 1,500)

Müritz, preserve (1931, 6,280)

Oberharz, preserve (1937, 1,980)

Peenemünder Haken und Struck, preserve (1925, 1,870)

Schwarzatal, preserve (1961, 1,756)

Stekby-Lódderitzer-Forst, preserve (1961, 2,080)

Untere Mulde, preserve (1961, 1,276)

Vessertal, preserve (1939, 1,384)

Great Britain

Beinn Eighe, reserve (1951, 4,180)

Caerlaverock, reserve (1957, 2,490)

Cairngorms, reserve (1954, 25,966)

Cors Tregaron, reserve (1955, 737)

Dartmoor, national park (1951, 94,535)

Exmoor, national park (1954, 68,635)

Lake District, national park (1951, 224,294)

Moor House, reserve (1952, 4,000)

North York Moors, national park (1952, 143,227)

Peak District, national park (1951, 140,378)

Pembrokeshire Coast, national park (1952, 58,275)

Rhum, reserve (1957, 10,560)

Snowdonia, national park (1951, 218,855)

Yorkshire Dales, national park (1954, 176,120)

Greece

Olympus, national park (1938, 5,000)

Parnassus, national park (1938, 5,000)

Samarias, national park (1962, 4,800)

Hungary

Aggtelek and Bekebarlang, preserve (1958, 1,420)

Kis Balaton, preserve (1951, 2,000)

Szalajkavölgy, preserve (1955, 558)

Szeged-Fehértó, preserve (1939, 1,450)

Tihany, national park (1952, 1,100)

Iceland

Hallormsstadur, preserve (1905, 600)

Thingvellir, national park (1928, 4,000)

Thjórsárdalur, preserve (1938, 12,500)

Thórsmörk, preserve (1925, 1,500)

Ireland

Bourn Vincent, natural park (1932, 4,220)

Curragh, preserve (1870, 2,000)

Phoenix, natural park (1925, 700)

Italy

Abruzzo, national park (1923, 29,160)

Circeo, national park (1934, 7,445)

Gran Paradiso, national park (1922, 56,000)

Stelvio, national park (1935, 95,631)

The Netherlands

Eijerlandse-Gat, preserve (no date, 20,000)

Hoge Veluwe, national park (1935, 5,700)

Kennemerduinen, national park (1950, 1,250)

Kraloër Heide and Dwingelosche Heide, preserve (1930, 1,192)

Veluwezoom, national park (1955, 4,488)

Weerribben, preserve (no date, 1,350)

Norway

Börgefjell, national park (1963, 110,000)

Fokstumyra, preserve (1923, 900)

Junkerdalsura, preserve (no date, 44,100)

Nordmarka, preserve (no date, 2,800)

Rondane, national park (1962, 57,500)

Poland

Babia Góra, people’s park (1954, 1,709)

Białowieza, people’s park (1947, 5,069)

Kampinos, people’s park (1959, 22,353)

Karkonoski, people’s park (1959, 5,562)

Ojców, people’s park (1956, 1,675)

Pieniny, people’s park (1954, 2,708)

Słowiński, people’s park (1966, 18,069)

Swiętokrzyski, people’s park (1950, 6,044)

Tatra, people’s park (1954, 22,075)

Wielkopolska, people’s park (1957, 5,385)

Woliński, people’s park (1960, 4,628)

Portugal

Gerês, national park (1954, no area)

Rumania

Bucegi, preserve (1958, 4,775)

Ceahlău, preserve (1962, 1,836)

Danube, preserve (1962, 40,000)

Domogled, preserve (1932, 810)

Pietrosul, preserve (1964, 2,700)

Retezat, national park (1935, 10,000)

Snagov, preserve (1952, 1,767)

Spain

Aigues Tortes, national park (1955, 10,500)

Goto Doriana, preserve (1966, 25,000)

Covadonga, national park (1918, 17,000)

El Palmeral de Elche, preserve (1933)

Gredos, reserve (1932, 75,000)

Ordesa, national park (1918, 2,050)

Saja y Agregados, preserve (1949, 60,000)

Teide, national park (1954, 11,000)

Sweden

Abisko, national park (1909, 7,500)

Gotska Sandön, national park (1910, 3,535)

Muddus, national park (1942, 49,200)

Peljekajse, national park (1909, 14,600)

Sarek Sjófallet, national park (1909, 535,000)

Sonfjäallet, national park (1909, 2,700)

Tófsingdalen, national park (1926, 1,365)

VadvetjÅko, national park (1920, 2,450)

Switzerland

Engadina, national park (1914, 16,887)

Yugoslavia

Durmitor, people’s park (1952, 32,000)

Fruška Gora, people’s park (1960, 22,850)

Mavrovo, people’s park (1949, 76,000)

Ohrid, people’s park (1958, 23,000)

Pelister, people’s park (1949, 12,000)

Plitvice Lakes, people’s park (1949, 19,172)

Tara, preserve (1950, 11,772)

Burma

Kahilu, reserve (1928, 16,120)

Kelatha, reserve (no date, 2,470)

Kyatthin, reserve (1941, 26,600)

Maymyo, reserve (1918, 12,500)

Moscos Islands, reserve (no date, 5,000)

Mulayit, reserve (1936, 13,910)

Pidaung, reserve (1913, 72,400)

Shwe-u-Daung, reserve (1918, 32,760)

Shwezet-Taw, reserve (1940, 55,100) Taunggyi, reserve (no date, 1,612)

China

So-hsi pang, preserve (no date or area)

Wu-ying, preserve (no date or area)

India

Bandipur, preserve (1941, 5,700)

Corbett, national park (1935, 47,400)

Gir Forest, preserve (1965, 316,000)

Hazaribagh, national park (1955, 38,400)

Kanha, preserve (1955, 31,600)

Kaziranga, preserve (1908, 52,000)

Periyar, preserve (1940, 77,000)

Sariska, preserve (1955, 20,700)

Shivpuri, national park (1955, 15,900)

Taroba, national park (1935, 11,700)

Tirap, national park (1947, 205,000)

Indonesia

Bali-Barat, natural park (1941, 20,000)

Baluran, natural park (1937, 25,000)

Banjuwangi Selatan, natural park (1939, 62,000)

Berbak, natural park (1935, 190,000)

Djungkulon, or Udjung-Kulon, natural park (1921, 41,150)

Gunung-Löser, natural park (1934, 416,500)

Indrapura Peak, natural park (1929, 12,500)

Kluet, natural park (no date, 20,000)

Komodo, natural park (1965, 30,000)

Kotawaringin and Sampit, natural park (1936, 305,000

Kutai, natural park (1936, 306,600)

Langkat, natural park (1938, 213,285)

Lorentz, natural park (1937, 40,000)

Palung, natural park (1937, 30,000)

Pulau-Panaitan, natural park (no date, 17,500)

Rindjani, natural park (1941, 40,000)

Sumatra-Selatan, natural park (1935, 356,800)

Way-Kambas, natural park (1937, 130,000)

Iran

Djakashem, preserve (1967, 3,700)

Israel

Mount Meyron, national park (1955, 10,500)

Japan

Akan, national park (1934, 87,498)

Aso, national park (1934, 73,087)

Bandai-Asahi, national park (1950, 189,661)

Chichibu-Tama, national park (1950, 121,600)

Chubu-Sangaku, national park (1934, 169,768)

Daisetsuzan, national park (1934, 231,929)

Fuji-Hakone-Izu, national park (1936, 122,309)

Ise-Shima, national park (1946, 52,036)

Kirishima, national park (1934, 55,231)

Nikko, national park (1934, 140,698)

Seto-Naikai, national park (1934, 65,909)

Shikotsu-Toya, national park (1949, 98,660)

Towada, national park (1936, 83,351)

Jo-Shin-Etsu Kogen, national park (1949, 188,915)

Yoshino-Kumano, national park (1936, 55,378)

Malaysia

Bako, national park (1956, 2,600)

Taman Negara, national park (1938, 436,000)

Mongolia

Bogdo-Ula, or Choibalsan-Ula, preserve (1953, 125,000)

Nepal

Chitawan, reserve (1959, 76,000)

Philippines

Apo, national park (1936, 76,900)

Banahaw-San Cristobal, national park (1941, 11,133)

Canlaon, national park (1934, 24,578)

Isarog, national park (1938, 10,112)

Naujan Lake, national park (1956, 21,700)

Tirad Pass, national park (1938, 6,300)

Singapore

Water Catchment, preserve (1951, 1,602)

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

Gal Oya, national park (1954, 25,000)

Ruhuna, national park (1938, 23,000)

Wasgomuwa, national park (1937, 28,000)

Wilpattu, national park (1938, 65,000)

Yala, national park (1900, 27,500)

Thailand

Doi Intanon, national park (1959, 13,047)

Khao Salob, national park (1961, 400,000)

Khao-Yai, national park (1962, 216,900)

Pu Kradeung, national park (1947, 34,800)

Tung Slang Luang, national park (1963, 128,000)

Turkey

Karatepe-Arslantas, national park (1958, 4,119)

Kizilçahaman, national park (1959, 1,050)

Uludag, national park (1961, 8,000)

Algeria

Akfadou, national park (1925, 2,115)

Babor, national park (1931, 1,701)

Cèdres de Téniet-el-Haad, national park (1923, 1,500)

Chrèa, national park (1925, 1,350)

Djurdjura, national park (1925, 16,550)

Ouarsenis, national park (1924, 1,030)

Angola

Camea, national park (1938, 1,000,000)

Luando, preserve (1938, 828,000)

Pórto Alexandre, national park (1957, 2,000,000)

Arab Republic of Egypt

Wadi Rishrash, preserve (no date, 51,800)

Cameroon

Bafia, preserve (1949, 42,000)

Bénoué, national park (1942, 180,000)

Bouba-Djida, national park (1947, 220,000)

Campo, preserve (1932, 330,000)

Dja, preserve (1950, 526,000)

Douala-Edea, preserve (1932, 160,000)

Faro, preserve (1947, 330,000)

Waza, national park (1934, 170,000)

Central African Republic

André Félix, national park (1960, 170,500)

Bamingui-Bangoran, national park (1916, 1,000,000)

Saint-Floris, national park (1916, 100,700)

Chad

Zakouma, preserve (1963, 297,200)

Dahomey

Boucle de la Pendjari, national park (1954, 275,000)

Ethiopia

Menagasha, national forest (1958, 3,000)

Gabon

Ofoue, preserve (1946, 150,000)

Okanda, national park (1946, 190,000)

Ghana

Mole, preserve (1962, 388,000)

Guinea

Nimba, preserve (1944, 19,500; partially on the territory of the Ivory Coast)

Ivory Coast

Bouna, preserve (1942, 900,000)

Tai-Sassandra, preserve (no date, 425,000)

Kenya

Amboseli, preserve (1948, 326,000)

Mara, preserve (1950, 151,300)

Mount Kenya, national park (1949, 59,000)

Ngong, preserve (1950, 117,845)

Tsavo, national park (1948, 2,080,000)

Malagasy Republic

Andohahelo, preserve (1939, 71,200)

Andringitra, preserve (1927, 35,400)

Ankarafantsika, preserve (1927, 67,000)

Montagne d’Ambre, national park (1958, 120,000)

Tsaratanana, preserve (1927, 59,280)

Tsingy du Bemaraha, preserve (1927, 149,470)

Zahamena, preserve (1927, 66,410)

Malawi

Malawi, national park (1966, 84,170)

Mali

Boucle du Baoule, national park (1954, 350,000)

Morocco

Tazekka, national park (1950, 580)

Toubkal, national park (1942, 36,000)

Mozambique

Gorongosa, national park (1935, 580,000)

Maputo, preserve (1960, 75,000)

Namibia

Etosha Pan, preserve (1958, 7,000,000)

Nigeria

Yankari, reserve (1956, 182,200)

People’s Republic of the Congo

Odzala, national park (1940, 110,000)

Republic of South Africa

Addo, national park (1931, 6,756)

Bontebok, national park (1959, 2,533)

Giant’s Castle, preserve (1903, 23,842)

Hluhluwe, preserve (1897, 22,800)

Kalahari Gemsbok, national park (1931, 900,000)

Kruger, national park (1898, 1,820,000)

Loskop Dam, preserve (1940, 12,757)

Mountain Zebra, national park (1937, 5,020)

Mkuzi, preserve (1912, 24,800)

Natal, national park (1916, 8,000)

St. Lucia, preserve (1897, 49,446)

Umfolozi, preserve (1897, 28,800)

Vaaldam, preserve (1954, 25,312)

Republic of Zaire

Garamba, national park (1938, 492,000)

Kivu, national park (1925, 800,000)

Upemba, national park (1939, 950,000) Rhodesia

Chimanimani, national park (1950, 8,166)

Matopos, national park (1953, 43,320)

Mushandike, national park (1954, 12,900)

Rhodes Inyanga, national park (1950, 34,550)

Victoria Falls, national park (1939, 59,307)

Wankie, national park (1927, 435,290)

Rwanda

Kagera, national park (1934, 251,000)

Senegal

Niokolo-Koba, national park (1954, 410,000)

Somali Democratic Republic

Bubasci, reserve (1960, 625,000)

Sudan

Dinder, national park (1939, 640,000)

Ercowit, preserve (no date, 115,000)

Nimule, national park (1954, 25,900)

Southern, national park (1939, 1,684,200)

Tanzania

Katavi, reserve (1951, 167,500)

Kilimanjaro, reserve (1951, 186,400)

Lake Manyara, national park (1960, 8,550)

Mkomazi, reserve (1951, 350,000)

Ngurdoto Crater, national park (1960, 6,280)

Rungwa, reserve (1951, 905,000)

Serengeti, national park (1940, 1,450,000)

Tunisia

Djebel Bou Hedma, state park (1936, 12,000)

Uganda

Murchison Falls, national park (1952, 384,000)

Queen Elizabeth, national park (1952, 220,000)

Upper Volta

Singou, preserve (1955, 192,800, on the border with Dahomey and Togo)

W du Niger, national park (1954, total area 1,205,400, of which 330,000 is in Upper Volta, 502,050 is in Dahomey, and the remainder is in Niger)

Zambia

Kafue, national park (1950, 2,250,000)

Luangwa Valley, preserve (1942, 1,275,000)

Argentina

El Rey, national park (1948, 44,162)

Iguassú, national park (1909, 55,000)

Laníin, national park (1937, 395,000)

Los Alerces, national park (1937, 263,000)

Los Glaciares, national park (1937, 600,000)

Nahuel Huapí, national park (1903, 785,000)

Perito Francisco Moreno, national park (1937, 115,000)

Tierra del Fuego, national park (1960, 63,000)

Bolivia

Sajama, national park (1939, 75,000)

Brazil

Iguaçu, national park (1939, 180,000)

Itatiaia, national park (1937, 12,000)

Paulo Afonso, national park (1948, 6,890)

Serra dos Orgãos, national park (1939, 10,500)

Canada

Banff, national park (1885, 664,076)

Cape Breton Highlands, national park (1936, 95,053)

Elk Island, national park (1913, 19,425)

Fundy, national park (1948, 20,720)

Georgian Bay Islands, national park (1929, 1,400)

Glacier, national park (1886, 134,940)

Jasper, national park (1907, 1,087,800)

Kootenay, national park (1920, 140,637)

Mount Revelstoke, national park (1914, 25,900)

Point Pelée, national park (1918, 1,564)

Prince Albert, national park (1927, 387,494)

Prince Edward, national park (1937, 1,813)

Riding Mountain, national park (1929, 297,332)

Terra Nova, national park (1957, 39,627)

Waterton Lakes, national park (1895, 52,577)

Wood Buffalo, national park (1922, 4,480,700)

Yoho, national park (1920, 131,313)

Algonquin, provincial park (1893, 753,599)

St. Lawrence, provincial park (1895, 927,500)

Chile

Juan Fernández, national park (1935, 18,300)

Los Paraguas, national park (1940, 18,000)

Nahuelbuta, preserve (1939, 5,415)

Perez Rosales, national park (1926, 135,175)

Puyehue, national park (1941, 75,000)

Villarrica, national park (1940, 13,780)

Colombia

Farallones, national park (1962, 300,000)

Macarena, preserve (1948, 1,150,000) Cuba

Cienaga de Zapata, preserve (1959, 179,450)

Cupeyal, preserve (1963, 10,260)

El Cabo, preserve (1963, 7,535)

Ecuador

Cayapas, national park (1968, 300,000)

Galapagos Islands, national park (1934, 10,000)

Guatemala

Atitlán, national park (1955, no area)

Cerro Miramundo, national park (1956, 900)

Laguna el Pino, national park (1955, no area)

Río Dulce, national park (1955, 20,000)

Tikal, national park (1955, 57,600)

Guyana

Kaieteur, national park (1929, 11,520)

Mexico

Cañon del Río Blanco, national park (1938, 55,690)

Cumbres de Monterrey, national park (1939, 246,500)

La Malinche, national park (1938, 47,711)

Nevado de Toluca, national park (1936, 67,000)

Sierra de San Pedro Martir, national park (1947, 63,000)

Tancítaro, national park (1940, 29,316)

Peru

Pampa de Galeras, national park (1966, 50,000)

Surinam

Bormoffo, preserve (no date, 10,000)

United States

Acadia, national park (1919, 13,415)

Big Bend, national park (1944, 284,288)

Bryce Canyon, national park (1924, 14,584)

Carlsbad Caverns, national park (1930, 20,000)

Crater Lake, national park (1902, 64,866)

Everglades, national park (1947, 550,000)

Glacier, national park (1910, 409,941)

Grand Canyon, national park (1919, 269,430)

Grand Teton, national park (1929, 124,140)

Great Smoky Mountains, national park (1930, 206,220)

Hawaii and Haleakala, national parks (1916, 89,169; and

1961, 10,685, respectively)

Isle Royale, national park (1940, 216,000)

Lassen Volcanic, national park (1916, 43,301)

Mammoth Cave, national park (1934, 20,541)

Mesa Verde, national park (1906, 20,830)

Mount McKinley, national park (1917, 775,600)

Mount Rainier, national park (1899, 97,844)

Olympic, national park (1938, 362,593)

Platt, national park (1906, 380)

Rocky Mountain, national park (1915, 105,224)

Sequoia and King’s Canyon, national park (1890, 336,629)

Shenandoah, national park (1935, 77,700)

Virgin Islands, national park (1956, 3,841)

Wind Cave, national park (1903, 11,392)

Yellowstone, national park (1872, 899,104)

Yosemite, national park (1890, 304,000)

Zion, national park (1919, 52,547)

Uruguay

Paso del Puerto, national park (no date, 600)

Roosevelt, national park (1916, 1,500)

Venezuela

El Avila, national park (1958, 66,192)

Guatopo, national park (1958, 92,640)

Henry Pittier, national park (1937, 90,000)

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, national park (1952, 160,000)

Yurubi, national park (1960, 4,000)

Commonwealth of Australia

Bellenden-Ker, national park (1921, 32,000)

Carnarvon, national park (1938, 26,900)

Cradle Mountain-Lake St. Clair, national park (1922, 133,240)

Eungella, national park (1941, 49,614)

Flinders Chase, preserve (1919, 55,000)

Hinchinbrook, national park (1932, 39,348)

Lamington, national park (1915, 19,530)

Mount Buffalo, national park (1898, 10,912)

Mount Kaputar, national park (1925, 14,250)

Mount Field, national park (1916, 16,808)

Mount Kosciusko, national park (1944, 535,410)

New England, national park (1935, 22,842)

Sydney, or Kue Ring Gai Chase, national park (1894, 14,300)

Wilson’s Promontory, national park (1905, 40,9523 Wyperfeld, national park (1921, 56,000)

New Zealand

Abel Tasman, national park (1942, 17,607)

Arthur’s Pass, national park (1929, 96,858)

Egmont, national park (1900, 33,079)

Fiordland, national park (1952, 1,224,345)

Mount Cook, national park (1953, 70,056)

Nelson Lakes, national park (1956, 56,634)

Tongariro, national park (1894, 66,105)

Urewera, national park (1954, 184,211)

Westland, national park (1960, 85,334)

A. A. VINOKUROV

preserve

[prə′zərv]
(ecology)
An area that is maintained for game or fish, especially for sport, and may have limited access requiring a permit for entry.
References in classic literature ?
which Sir Arthur Wardour preserves with such jealous care in the third drawer of his oaken cabinet, scarcely allowing any one to touch it, and being himself not able to read one syllable of its contents.
We crossed woods never crossed, I believe, by any before: the darkness of the night and the thickness of the shade spread a kind of horror round us; our gloomy journey was still more incommoded by the brambles and thorns, which tore our hands; amidst all these difficulties I applied myself to the Almighty, praying him to preserve us from those dangers which we endeavoured to avoid, and to deliver us from those to which our flight exposed us.
The power of the head of the nation was commonly too weak, either to preserve the public peace, or to protect the people against the oppressions of their immediate lords.
If so, may God preserve you, for you will assuredly be ruined when the time comes for repayment
Preserve the right of thy place; but stir not questions of jurisdiction; and rather assume thy right, in silence and de facto, than voice it with claims, and challenges.
Helene was faced by a new problem- how to preserve her intimacy with both without offending either.
Massacres are to be sternly forbidden as heretofore; but any citizen or subject of either country disobeying the injunction is to detach the scalps of all persons massacred and deposit them with a local officer designated to receive and preserve them and sworn to keep and render a true account thereof.
and she was honestly anxious to preserve her little daughter from the contamination of further intimacy with such a child.
8 the living tortoise is prescribed as a charm to preserve vineyards from hail.
At still greater depths, the temperature of the mud and water would probably not be low enough to preserve the flesh; and hence, carcasses drifted beyond the shallow parts near an Arctic coast, would have only their skeletons preserved: now in the extreme northern parts of Siberia bones are infinitely numerous, so that even islets are said to be almost composed of them; [20] and those islets lie no less than ten degrees of latitude north of the place where Pallas found the frozen rhinoceros.
And yet, as there is no conduct so fair and disinterested but that it may be misunderstood by ignorance, and misrepresented by malice, I have been sometimes tempted to preserve my own reputation at the expense of my reader, and to transcribe the original, or at least to quote chapter and verse, whenever I have made use either of the thought or expression of another.
Dunster had spoken all the time like a man struggling to preserve his self-control.